Grand Prince of All Russia
Valery Viktorovich Kubarev
Grand Kubensky Rurikovich
Русский Monday, 22 July 2024
Russian Revolution's Forum

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the World history in 3 volumes

Modernization of Russia

Holy Russia - Third Rome
The new subject of international law, the State Holy Russia - Third Rome, 21.09.2013.

Nova Church of Holy Russia
Orthodoxy and Christianity require reforming and release of heresy and obscurantism. 21.09.2011.

The Seljuk Dynasty Origin New!!!
The author put forward a hypothesis according to which the Seljuk’s Sultans came from the Princes of the Russ – Rurikovich Kin, who eventually converted to Islam. The hypothesis was fully confirmed by the identification of the main historical figures of the Seljuk dynasty with the descendants of the Princes St. Vladimir and Yaroslav the Wise. We are talking about the rulers of Sultanate of Rum Sultan Suleiman and his descendants, as well as Tuqaq, Seljuk, Mikail, Israel, Toghrul, Alp Arslan and other Sultans. Princes and their sons from the Principality of Tmutarakan became Seljuk’s Sultans, from where they conquered the countries and peoples of the Caucasus, Iran, Asia Minor and Central Asia. 24.05–12.06.2023.

Synchronization of historical and religious Chronicles
The author correctly synchronizes historical and religious Chronicles of the Ancient World based on a short chronology and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in the annals and Scriptures. The author believes that discrepancies in dates, geographical localities and ethnic origin of historical and religious figures are due to erroneous traditional chronology and historical geography, as well as the deliberate adaptation of phenomena and events to an established paradigm. 20.04–25.05.2020.

Astronomical dating of Biblical events
The author's reconstruction of the history and chronology of religions is fully verified by identifying 15 celestial phenomena described in the Chronicles, including 11 Solar Eclipses, 3 Zodiacs and 1 Supernova. A chronological shift of 1780 years in the history of Ancient Egypt has been confirmed for 6 phenomena, including 3 Solar Eclipses and 3 Zodiacs, including the Eclipse of Pharaoh Takelot on August 8, 891. Astronomically confirmed the date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as March 18, 1010, and the date of death of Ibrahim – the son of the Prophet Muhammad as February 7, 1152 (28 Shawwal 546 AH). 20.02–31.03.2020.

Origin of the gens Rurik
After the break of ties between the metropolis and the Russian principalities, the annals of Byzantium were cleared of the mention of "foreigners" in the management of the Empire, and the Chronicles of Russia did not have time to properly reflect the role of Rurik in world history. A study of the sources of Ancient Rome, New Rome, Russia, Arab countries, Danube and Volga Bulgaria allowed the author to identify the Russ gens and Bulgarian Khagans with the Flavian dynasty, as well as to identify Rurik, his descendants and relatives from the Macedonian dynasty (IX–XI century) and dynasty of Lecapenus (X century). The last Russian Emperor of New Rome been Yaroslav the Wise, throne name Constantine Monomachos. 11.09–21.10.2019.

Chronology of monotheistic religions
The author identified the Patriarchs of monotheism with well-known figures of human history. He proved that the oldest religion of monotheism is Christianity, which had a theoretical character in the I Millennium (Old Testament Christianity) and a practical embodiment at the beginning of the II Millennium (New Testament Christianity). Islam and Judaism emerged only in the early VII century and became radical branches of Christianity. Based on the study of solar eclipses, the author has determined the date and place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (March 18, 1010 in Constantinople), the year of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (1152) and the period creation of the Quran (1130–1152). 01–27.08.2019.

Localization of Ancient Rome
The history of Ancient Rome is well studied, but hides a lot of inconsistencies and contradictions relating to the period of formation of the city and the expansion of the Romans into the world. We believe that the problems are caused by ignorance of the true localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba until the Fire on 64 and move city to location of Veii in Italy. The article also considers the aspects of ethnic origin of the peoples of the Latin League, Ancient Rome and Europe. The vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region to the Europe coinciding with the migration flows of the Migration Period and the spread of PIE is substantiated. In addition the article considers the dynamics of growth and decline of the population of Ancient Rome in the localities from its inception to sunset and transformation. 23.06–16.07.2019.

Short chronology of Ancient Egypt
The history of Ancient Egypt generated in XIX century, every day finds out all greater discrepancy to modern realities both the newest archeological and tool data, including results of DNA researches of mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. The chronology of Egypt as whole is considered well investigated and however it has been created for substantiation of an antiquity of Jewish people, instead of for scientific description of one of most ancient terrestrial civilizations. Author's reconstruction of chronology of Ancient Egypt has found out time shift at rate 1780 years in depth of centuries from true dating events. 1-16.06.2019.

Great Tartary or Slavic Empire
The next riddle of world historiography is solved. Present clause is devoted to history and modern condition of one of the most grandiose empires of terrestrial civilization – Great Tartary or Slavic Empires. 04–19.09.2017.

The European Aryans
In present clause the broad audience of the questions connected to probable Aryan origin of various European peoples is considered. Including aspects of possible an Aryan origin of Slavs and prospects of presence by these of special way to world around are considered. 25.02.2017 - 24.03.2017.

Summarizing of Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016)
Within the framework of carrying out Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) on elections of Grand Prince of All Russia four Nominees have been put forward. The overwhelming majority of voices have been given for Nominee Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. Will of God and decision of participants of Assembly, Zemsky Sobor 2016 has elected lifelong Grand Prince of All Russia Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. 11.05.2016.

Yaroslavl’s Princes Rurikovich
In clause is described family tree of Grand Princes of Yaroslavl and their descendants, it is the senior branch of the Kin of Russ – Rurikovich, going back to Mstislav Great Monomachos. Kin of the Grand Princes of Yaroslavl have continued by Princes Grand Kubensky – Kubarev. 22.02.2016–11.03.2016.

All truth about Saint Prince Vladimir
In clause the all truth about Saint Prince Vladimir which is ignored Orthodox and Romanov’s historians, communistic historical science and their modern adepts, fabricating myths about Russ with « good intentions » opens without denominations. The kin of Russ - Rurikovich has created Orthodoxy and the Russian statehood, Russian people began to forget about it. Glory to Russ! 07-17.07.2015.

Brief chronology of religions
The report at XXX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 25.04.2015, Moscow, RosNoU. In the clause the final Chronological Tables of Ancient Egypt, Ancient and New Rome, Rome in Italy, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are submitted. 25.04.2015.

Canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century and the present time
The report at XXIX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20.12.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the comparative analysis of canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century (1315-1321), displayed on mosaics and frescos of Church of Chorus in Istanbul, and modern doctrines are made. Numerous differences of events of the Holy Legend and the Gospel of the past and the present are found out. 20.12.2014.

Ethnic threats to peoples of Russia
In clause political, economic, cultural and religious aspects of consequences of ethnic opposition of radical peoples of Russia and new coming Slavic population formed as result of violent Slavic expansion in Russia in days of the Mongolian yoke are considered. The historical reasons of occurrence of ethnic contradictions are investigated, estimations of modern condition of problem (Chechelevskaya and Lubotinskaya Republics in 1905, Donetsk national republic and Lugansk national republic in 2014 in territory of Ukraine) are given and offers on decrease in escalation of ethnic opposition in territory of Eurasia are made. 09.06 - 05.07.2014.

Attribution of Rurikovich and Emperors Lecapenus
The report at XXVIII International Conference on problems of the Civilization is 26.04.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In clause it is described detailed attribution of Ugrian Tsars with Emperors of Ancient and New Rome and Patriarches of terrestrial civilization. It is scientifically proved origins of all patriarches of monotheism and Emperors Flavius and Lecapenus from kint of Ugrian Tsars of Russ (Great), is the ethnic Finn-Ugrian from Volga region. 23.03.2014 – 24.04.2014.

Putin's Eurasian impasse
Vladimir Putin and Uniform Russia realize the Eurasian project, involving Russia and Russian people during stagnation and backlogs from World Civilization. They create Gog and Magog Empire, menacing to world peace. Why the Kremlin authority has not asked Russian Slavs – they want to live in the Asian country or to be safe Europeans? 14-22.01.2014.

Projections of the God in symbols of religion
As result of studying the extensive visual material created by 3D modeling, we have proved existence of uniform source of an origin of Projections of the God, that is religious symbolic of people. The source or quantum object refers to the Chariot of the God. We believe that on the basis of our researches, it will be possible to organize training to travel on the Universe of space navigators from the most gifted people and to create spaceships with engines as the described quantum generator is Chariots of the God or the Chariot of Cube. 25–30.08.2013.

Origin and migration of Slavs
Historical and genetic routes of migrations of the Slavs, calculated with the help from ancient Byzantium, European, Chinese, Arabian, Bulgarian and Russian chronicles and annals, and also modern researches of man's DNA chromosomes. 01-21.05.2013.

Empires of cousins of Russ
The report at scientific XXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization 26-27.04.2013, Moscow, RosNoU. In article five world Empires of cousins of Russ (Great) existing in our era on open spaces of Eurasia with cyclicity of occurrence once in 300 years are described.

Hungarian Kingdom of Russ
It is continuation of research of dynastic communications of Rurikovich. Cousin of Rurik Almysh/Almos and his children Kazan/Kurszan and Arbat/Arpad, it is all ethnic Ugrian of Russ, have based at the end of IX century – beginning of X century the Hungarian kingdom of Russ, having grasped Great Moravia. 08-11.01.2013.

Reconstruction of dynastic communications of Rurikovich in IX-XI centuries
Report at anniversary scientific XXV International conference on problems of civilization at 21-22.12.2012, RosNoU, Moscow. Corrected at 03.01.2013.

Educated Christianity of Russ
Bible – the Old Testament and the New Testament has exhausted itself. Forged the Scripts and the Sacred Legend cannot serve more as a spiritual reference point for promotion of mankind forward on the river of time. It is allowable to use only spiritual – moral potential of the ancient products being product of national creativity of Jews and Catholics, instead of divine revelations. The chronology of Bible events, an ethnic accessory of patriarchs of mankind, names, geography and original languages of heroes of the Bible do not correspond to the validity. Bible miracles have the quantum nature in the basis and submit to laws of a universe. Educated Christianity of Russ restore the religious both destroyed obscurantists religious and scientific knowledge of Christianity and revolutionary role of religion in history of civilization. 26.08. – 12.10.2012.

True Empty Tomb
Nova Church of Sacred Russia and Sacred Russ, Princes of Russia congratulates mankind on presence of True Empty Tomb and restoration of the religious and historical truth. The true has triumphed forever. 20-29.05.2012.

Orthodoxy and Islam in Old Russia
The report at XXIV International scientific conference on problems of the Civilization in Russian New University on April 20-21, 2012.

Day of Church Slavonic writing. Russ Cyril and Methodius.
In this significant holiday of Day of Church Slavonic writing and remembering Equal Apostles Sacred Cyril and Methodius, Princes of Russ convincingly ask Russian Orthodox Church and the public of the orthodox countries to return to sources and correctly to name the writing, language and church books Russian, but not Slavic. Ancient Russia was the Finno-Ugric state created by Russ Christians Rurik and Igor, Cyril and Methodius, Askold and Dir, Prophetic Oleg and Sacred Olga, Sacred Vladimir and Empress Anna Macedonian. 24.05.2011.

Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries
In article on a rich actual material it is shown, that all wars of Russ with Byzantium in 836-1043 have been connected to deduction of a throne of empire by Russian party of Constantinople headed by the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. To the author it is proved, that two centuries co-emperors of New Rome were Great Princes Rurikovich. Last Russian emperor Jaroslav Mudry known in Tsar Grad as Constantine Monomakh was. The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.

Genetic distances between cousins Rurikovich
The report at scientific XXII International Conference on problems of the Civilization, on April 22-23, 2011, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. 24.04.2011.

Slavic-Mongolian invasion to Russia
Results of our research of an origin of Slavs have not simply scientific, but political value. In view of the received data it is necessary to form the weighed policy of interethnic and inter religious attitudes in Russia and the world. The modern hobby of Russian Slavs Rodoverie, the Aries origin and the contemptuous attitude to inhabitants of Central Asia, Caucasus, Mongolia, China and other regions of the world bears a system and logic mistake. Rodoverie in general it is senseless, in fact ancestors Rodoverian in Russia and Ukraine have left Central Asia and were Kirghiz, Altaian’s, Tajik’s, Pashtun’s, Uyghur’s and Juan-Juan, and completely not blond demigods. 12-18.03.2011.

Old Rome and Italic union of the Volga region
The scientific article on an extensive historical material proves that Ancient Rome has been created by Finno-Ugric tribe’s of Italic union of the Volga region (Idel, Bulgar). Italic peoples Vestini (Vesi), Marsi (Merya), Lucani (Lucane), Marrucini (Marri) and others till now live on Volga. Finno-Ugric named Latinas (Latinyanami) German peoples of the Volga region, differently Altyn-ami that means Gold literally. Fortress Alba Longo was called Altynbash, and Volga region Rome – Ulak-Urum. Southwest capital of Finno-Ugric of Idel was city Phanagoria or the Finn–Ugoria, being in antiquities capital Bosporus Empire and Great Bulgaria was. The web of lies of the western falsifiers of history how many would not be twisted, but to it all the same there comes the end. 10-21.02.2011.

Correct genographic
We have proved fidelity Bulgarian theory of an origin of mankind. She proves to be true a natural vector of moving of people on a planet from the Volga region in all parties of Eurasia, and there from to Africa, Australia and America. All peoples and races of the world have taken place from Hindi-European, namely – from ethnic Finno-Ugric. 01-07.02.2011.

Correct DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology
Scientific article of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev on DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology is submitted to your attention. The author has created formulas with which help it is possible to define precisely time of life of the general ancestor and an epoch of formation of various languages. These formulas have received the name of Kubarev’s formula. With the help of mathematical calculations, Valeriy Kubarev has proved fidelity Barrow of Hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas and own reconstruction of a history of the world. We hope that results of research will find wide application in DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology. 04-14.01.2011.

Genealogy and genetics of Princes of Russia
The report of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev at XXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization 25.12.2010. Valeriy Kubarev's scientific article describes genetics of Rurikovich and Sorts of Russia. Grand Prince has scientifically defined modal haplotype of Rurik, Gedimin, Russ Aydar, Kubrat, Flavius and has theoretically described modal haplotype of Alexander Great, Jesus Christ Zlatoust, Prophet Mohammed and Genghis Khan. All these well-known people ethnically Finno-Ugrian from the Sort of Russ. 25.12.2010.

What do we celebrate on November 4? Loss of the national sovereignty...
National voting or voting of national representatives is unacceptable for elections of Tsar and Grand Duke, in fact tsar from the God, and the voice of people is not a voice Divine. Elections of Grand Duke only voting of Princes – patrimonial aristocracy of Russia are possible. 08-21.11.2010.

Turn of the Earth promptly comes nearer
This is article with the analysis of abnormal geophysical and climatic activity on a planet. 09-12.09.2010.

Baltavar – a symbol of Christianity, an Islam and Judaism
Petrarca: « When people will address to the history, his greatness come to live » 30-31.03.2010

History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012
Kubarev V.V.'s report, History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012. Section «Civilization aspects of the Russian history and chronology». Tenth International scientific conference «Civilization of knowledge: global crisis and an innovative choice of Russia», Moscow, April 24-25, 2009, RosNOU.

Archive 2006-2018

Whose fault is it?

The Catechon Paradigm as an instrument of the Antichrist New!!!
In the article, the author examines the current state of the catechon paradigm and the practice of using the provisions of the concept in the political and public life of the Russian Federation. According to the author, the idea of the catechon in Russia was intercepted by the forces of evil and used as a screen to cover their deeds. Today, the catechon paradigm has become an instrument of the Antichrist and his adherents to gain world domination. The only resource for Lucifer’s conquest of the world is sinful people whom he can attract under his banners. As successful as his deception and seduction will be, so strong and numerous will be the army of Satan. 05–17.12.2022.

Impairment of Orthodoxy New!!!
In the article, the author has carried out a retrospective analysis of the events and processes that led to the impairment and transformation of the canons of Orthodoxy and the patristic tradition of Russian Christianity. Prohibitions and reliance on the good intentions of opportunists within the body of the church led to a natural distortion of the teaching. As a result, the Orthodox Church became vulnerable to the pressure of Lucifer's lies and deception and ceased to be a source of life. 30.09–25.11.2022.

Features of Christianity in Cappadocia New!!!
The usual facts for Cappadocia were the proximity of male and female Monasteries and their communication. The plots and frescoes of the Churches were created no earlier than the first quarter of the XI century. The isomorphic images of St. George, Theodore Stratelates and Theodore Tiron have come down to us. According to the author, St. George became a collective image of the Saints Constantine the Great and the two Theodores. The fresco of the Serpent Church depicts Onuphrius the Great as a hermaphrodite, which the Church is trying to forget. On the face of the purposeful distortion by Christianity of the Holy Tradition, led by the Holy Spirit, and the removal from the original sources. 05–28.08.2022.

Emperors Lekapenos(920–945)
Based on a thorough analysis of the chronicles of New Rome, Ancient Russia, Great Bulgaria and Arab sources, the author has justified the Finno–Ugric origin of the Macedonian Dynasty and the Lekapenos Dynasty. The details of the biographies, names, dates of rule and family ties of dozens of Emperors, Khagans and Princes of Byzantium, Russ and Bulgar coincide with great accuracy, which makes it possible to identify all the studied personalities with real historical figures. In local chronicles, they have different or identical names, depending on the national characteristics of the nicknames of the studied persons. 07.12.2020–30.01.2021.

Dancing on bones (people losses of USSR in SWW)
We have found out the facts of direct falsification of human losses of military men and civil persons of the USSR within the Second World War in some millions person. Forgery is caused by activity of the propaganda machine of the USSR and false understanding of patriotism in modern Russia. By our calculations true irrevocable losses of the population of the USSR within the SWW make 7.6–8.7 million persons from among military men and the general losses with civil people 12.8–13.9 million persons. Have run away from Stalin paradise of USSR is hundred thousand (up to 1.3 million) the persons. We believe that the name of each victim of war should be taken into account and sounded publicly. 04–18.05.2019.

Expansion of Rome from Volga region
The report at XXXIII International conference on problems of the Civilization, 24.12.2016, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the extensive information on resettlement of peoples to Europe through ports of Bosporan Kingdom and Bosporus to the Mediterranean from the Volga region, Siberia and Caucasus during existence of Ancient Rome in delta of the rivers Volga and Akhtuba since VI century B.C. up to middle of VI century is submitted. 24.12.2016.

Seleucus and tribal leaders of Rome
The report at scientific XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization has acted on December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. In the report the hypothesis that "Macedonian" gains of IV century B.C. actually are the first wave of expansion of Ancient Rome and resettlement of peoples on South, East and West from territory of the Volga region and Caucasus is put forward and proved. 26.12.2015.

Picturesque Gospel of Church of Chora (Kariye) in Istanbul
Research of artifacts of Church of the Christ Savior in Chora (Church of Chorus, XIV century, Istanbul) has allowed restoring overlooked nuances of ancient doctrines of Byzantium Orthodoxy. The numerous facts of distortion Holy Book and Holy Legend have been found out at formation of modern Christian canons which at all are not an inviolable reality from above, and there is product of human creativity. 15.09–08.10.2014.

Images ancient Romans from Volga in artefacts
Long millennia in Idel-Rome-Memphis-Mitsraim-Itil-Saray-Batu lived from 600 000 up to one million person. Ruins of city are grandiose pantry of a history, culture and religion. Masonic scientists diligently avoid carrying out there scale excavation. In those places prospers only black selector of treasures. How long it is possible to hide to world elite of impostors true from people? 20-22.04.2010.

Archive 2004-2018

What to do?

Sixth and other questions New!!!
Why doesn't the ROC want to stop the war? 14.02.2022.

Five questions to the ROC New!!!
The first question: What is the data of the Birth of Christ now? The second question: When and where was Jesus Christ crucified? The third question: When will the Apocalypse begin? Fourth question: Why Tartarus and the Kingdom of The Beast located in Russia? The fifth question: When did Vladimir Putin become the receptacle of the Beast? 24-27.01.2022.

The Prophet Muhammad and the Quran
Based on an independent analysis of artifacts, ancestral tree and astronomical phenomena related to the deeds, life and death of the Prophet Muhammad, as well as historical evidence of the first appearance and legal use of the Quran in the life of Muslims, the author drew conclusions about the integration of several historical figures of the VII and XII centuries into the personality of the Prophet Muhammad. They became Khagan Kubrat, aka Emperor Heraclius, the Arabian Prophet or Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphs and the true Prophet Muhammad, who lived in 1090–1052. The Quran was created in 1130–1152. The proposed interpretation does not undermine the canons of the faith of Islam, but establishes the truth. 11–30.11.2021.

Syncing the chronicles of Rome and Egypt
Based on a thorough analysis of details of military campaigns and astronomical phenomena from the chronicles of Ancient and New Rome, Ancient Egypt and Persian sources, the author confirmed the chronological shift in the history of Ancient Egypt by 1780 years in the past. The author also revealed the complot of historians to conceal the existence of Ancient Egypt in I millennium by masking the deeds of the Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for the non-existent activity of the Kings of the Sasanian Empire. 06–29.03.2021.

The identification of the Patriarchs with historical figures
The author correctly identifies the Patriarchs of monotheistic religions with historical figures of the past based on the paradigm of a short chronology of the world and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in Chronicles and Scriptural. The identification of the Patriarchs is based on the analysis of data from the genealogical trees of Jesus Christ from Lucas, Matthew, mosaics of the Church of Chora, the genealogical tree of the Prophet Muhammad and lists of the Kings of the Great Bulgaria. 21.07–27.08.2020.

Pure Relationship
We have found out and have proved that at everyone men are two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors he has only one pair pure relatives – the forefather and the foremother. All other ancestors are the listed relatives. We also have proved that each woman has two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors it has only one pair foremothers. On the basis of research we confirm De Facto firmness of the absolute law of succession is rule Lex Salica of Pure Relationship. 05.08 – 03.09.2014.

Archive 2004-2018

To be continued...

Thoughts aloud: Religion

Gospel of Russia
Light and darkness New!!!
Covid is an agent of the Apocalypse New!!!
Dating the New Testament
Apostles of the Christ
The red cock in pagan Russia
Rostov Great Kremlin
Christ Tower in Galata
Assumption Cathedral, the Rostov Kremlin
Under gate Church of John the Apostle, the Rostov Kremlin
Under gate Church of Christmas, the Rostov Kremlin
Not combustible Cubina
Pilgrim and scientific visit to Sinai and Palestine of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev
Rock of Cub, Qubbat as-Sahra or Solomon Temple
Necropolis of Smolensk cathedral of Novodevichiy Monastery in Moscow
Urmans-Romans in Russian, Bulgarian and the Byzantium annals
Prince Kurbsky and Ivan IV named Sacred Russia is Israel
Allah Akbar!
Lupa Capitolina from Volga region
69 descendant dynasty of Tsar of Tsars
Maria's biography
Hermes Trismegist
Swastika and card colors as symbols of Christianity
Rise, fall asleep and asceticism

Thoughts aloud: Politics

Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016)
The Nazis Anatole Klyosov and Josef Mengele New!!!
What means Moskal?
Kill Lenin inside
The Program Great Russ
Civilization or barbarity and wildness
Manifest of Russian Minarchism
Holey nuclear shield of Russia
Results of Elections-2016 to State Duma of Russian Federation and Moscow regional Duma
Complaint in the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
Putin’s fetters
Appeal of Holy Russia
All-Russian Marche of Peace 21.09.2014
Family tree of Princes and Moscow Tsars Kubarev-Kubensky-Rurikovich
Russian march For Holy Russia!
Press conference: Russian March For Holy Russia!
Gene of corruptions of Slavs
Russian march – 2012
The candidate for Presidents of the Russian Federation of N.V. Levashov has died
Bluff of Slav-Aries propagandists

Thoughts aloud: Advice

Book "Vedas of Russ"
Cube meditation for men
Cubina meditation for woman
Ecosystem Easy Access New!!!
Lightning above Vatican
How to stop smoke
How to stop drink
How to grow thin
How to reach enlightenment
The text of the book "Michael Khodorkovsky Forbidden forum " in two volumes
The text of the book Christ
The text of the book Conservative
The text of the book Varyags
Donations New!!!

Thoughts aloud

Archive 2004-2018

To be continued...
  Valery KUBAREV > Modernization of Russia > Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries

Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries

The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.

In view of studying dynastic communications Rurikovich and a history of Russia it is useful to study and correctly to interpret the known and held back facts of military expansion of Russian princes in the Mediterranean region, Black sea, Caucasus, Average and Asia Minor in IX-XI centuries. Now these events are represented by historians as casual and poorly explainable sorties of northern barbarians carrying isolated character. Thus military power of Russian armies in these campaigns is represented rather significant even to modern measures. We shall try to restore the purposes, problems and results of aggressive campaigns of Russian teams in coordination with political events of the Middle Ages in New Rome – the Byzantium empire and the surrounding states. Wars with the Volga Bulgaria will not be considered within the framework of the given research.

From various chronicles the following military expeditions Russ are known:

1. A campaign of Russia against Byzantium in 830th. It is attack Russ on Propontid (the Byzantium coast from party Bithynia and islands of Marmara Sea) and Paphlagonia (the north of modern Turkey on Black sea) in board of emperor Theophilos. Russ has plundered settlements near to Constantinople and the city Amastrid on Black sea.

2. A campaign Russ against Byzantium in 860th. It is sea attack to Tsargrad. Is completely successful attack Russ on capital of empire. Though Tsargrad has not been seized, Russ has taken away the big extraction. A campaign headed Kiev’s princes Askold and Dir.

3. The Caspian campaign of Russ in 864-884. It is sea attack on the city of Abaskun, Iran.

4. The Russ-Byzantium war in 907. It is campaign to Tsargrad prince Oleg. The fact of a campaign is denied by many historians, as is written down in a legendary kind and not reflected in the Byzantium documents.

5. The Caspian campaigns of in 909-910 and 913-914. It is sea attack on the Persian cities of the Caspian region.

6. The Russ-Byzantium war in 920, 941-944. It is sea and overland campaigns to Tsargrad prince Igor. During the first campaign the army Russ has suffered defeat on the sea and the second campaign has ended with signing of the peace treaty and a tribute from Byzantium.

7. The Caspian campaign of in 943-945. It is attack and plunder of the rich city of Berdaa, capital of the Caucasian Albania.

8. Campaigns in 960th to Khazar Khaganate. It is overland and river-sea campaign of allied armies of Russia, New Rome and the Volga Bulgaria. Route Khazar Khaganate. It is strengthening of positions of Russ on Northern Caucasus.

9. The Russ-Byzantium war in 970-971. It is expeditions of prince Svyatoslav all over again in the union with Greeks against Bulgaria, and then in the union with the Bulgarian tsar Boris II against Byzantium. War has terminated ostensibly in exile Russ from Bulgaria and destruction of prince Svyatoslav at returning to Kiev.

10. The Caspian campaign in 987. It is sea expedition Russian Vikings for rendering the military help to emir of Derbent.

11. The Russ-Byzantium war in 988. It is attack cities of Korsun in Crimea by prince Vladimir, capture of the Byzantium colony.

12. A campaign of Russia against Byzantium in 1024. It is attack of a small flotilla of Vikings on island Lemnos. Attempts it will be arranged on service in the Byzantium empire. All 800 participants of attack were lost.

13. The Caspian campaign in 1030-1032. Participation Russian Vikings in internal political struggle of the near-Caspian states of Shirvan and Derbent.

14. The Russ-Byzantium war in 1043. It is sea campaign of prince Vladimir, the son of Grand Prince Jaroslav Mudry to Tsargrad. Has ended with sea defeat of Russ and the conclusion of the favorable contract with Byzantium.

Let's consider all military companies under the order.

1. A campaign of Russia against Byzantium in 830th.

Attack Russ to Paphlagonia is a unique mention contains in Vita over, George of Amastrid [1]. Date of attack in Vita is not specified and estimated by different researchers over a wide range: from the end of VIII century up to 941. The most probable date this beginning of 830th. The citation:

« There was an invasion of barbarians, Russ – people as everyone knows extremely wild and rough, any traces of philanthropy not carrying in. Brutal customs, brutal affairs, finding out the bloodthirstiness already one kind, in anything the friend that is peculiar to people, not finding such pleasure, as in murder, they – this pernicious and in practice, and named people, - having started ruin from Propontid and having visited other coast, reach at last and up to fatherland sacred (over. George), killing mercilessly any floor and any age, not regretting old man, not disregarding babies, but against all equally arming murder a hand and hastening everywhere to carry by destruction, how many on it at them was forces. Temples are subverted, relics are profaned: on a place their [impious] altars, lawless drink and victims, ancient Taurian beating of foreigners, at them keeping force. Murder of maidens, husbands and wives; Also there was nobody assisting, anybody, ready to resist... »

Map of Asia Minor of XV century.

According to a source [1] is in church Amastrid Russ have tried to open a coffin over. George [2] in searches of treasures, but they did not manage it to make, at them were took away hands. When according to the local captive Russ has honored the Christian god, hands have found mobility. Then the leader struck with miracle Russ has released captives and has left with an army.

The first publisher of Russian text translation in 1893 counted V.G. Vasiljevsky, leaning on style of a statement, that the author of a monument was known angiograph deacon Ignatius (770/780 – after 845). Proceeding from this, it dated attack between 830 and 842. The scientists adhering to this point of view, mark stylistic affinity Vita to other products Ignatius and natural passage about dews in the text. Except for stylistic affinity Vita with compositions Ignatius historians see one more characteristic attribute of an epoch – silence about icons. Icon fighting the period proceeded to death of emperor Theophilos in 842 that defines the top border of spelling Vita. In the description of attack it is underlined, that barbarians have begun ruin from Propontid that is from places about Constantinople. Traditional historians indignantly deny this fact asserting that similar events could take place only after 860 during invasion Vikings Askold and Dir.

K. Tsukerman [3] carries an attack to the beginning of 830th. Embassy Russ to Constantinople in 838-th, known of Bertiniani annals, it interprets as the subsequent peace treaty. Diplomatic correspondence of emperors Theophilos reproduced in this source and Lui Blagochestivy testifies to aspiration of the Byzantium emperor to protect delegation Russ from any dangers and to provide its successful homecoming. So the careful altitude of Byzantines to Russia is treated Tsukerman by their desire to keep the world with the barbarians representing serious military danger to empire.

Let's compare the known data and comments to our reconstruction of a history [4]. We shall look at the biography of the future emperor of New Rome of Basil I. We believe the founder of the Macedonian dynasty the younger son of emperor Constantine VI Blind. On a traditional history at Constantine was two sons, but they have died or have disappeared at infantile age. Traditional historians count Basil the son of the Armenian, which for some reason veins in Macedonia [5]. Father Basil called Constantine, mother is unknown. It is considered, that about 813 Basil was in captivity at the Bulgarian tsar Krum. Only in 836 Basil was possible manage to Thrace, Byzantium. There from it has got over to Constantinople where has got in a palace of emperor Michael III.

Region Anatolys, Asia Minor.

We believe that Basil was not in captivity at Krum, and was rescued at Bulgaria from prosecutions of an environment of the grandmother of empress Irena. When it has grown up, has returned to New Rome Basil was the representative of an imperial dynasty of Russ – Flavius, ruling in New Rome since Constantine Great times. After usurpation of authority in Tsargrad Greek woman Irena, the dynasty of Russ more than for half-centuries has lost a throne of ancient empire. Returning of Basil to Constantinople, in our opinion, began through capital Bithynia, the city of Prusa (modern Bursa) which belonged to demand return a throne of empire which belonged to it by the right. In fact to Russ as the patrimonial property since III century of our era was. Basil has arrived to the city of Prusa in 836.

Having received authority at people of Russ, and having collected an army of Vikings, Basil in 837 has gone by the ships to Constantinople to struggle for a throne. On road through of Marmara Sea Vikings have plundered the Byzantium islands and suburbs of Tsargrad, have passed Bosporus, have attacked Paphlagonia and have ruined the city of Amastrid. The trophies received Vikings of Basil, were an original payment of Byzantium for years of discharge of Russia from a throne of New Rome. These riches have helped Basil to strengthen the authority in Prusa. As a result of the power action Russ emperor Michael had to conclude the world with embassy Russ in 838, having recognized Basil's imperial status.

Thus, the purpose of the first campaign of Russia to Tsargrad in 837 has been achieved – the future emperor Basil I have received monetary indemnification for years of exile and to settle down in the patrimonial residence of Russ – the city of Prusa, having declared about itself as the future applicant for a throne of empire. All problems of military expedition of Russia have been executed. Military operation Russ in 830th has come to the end with full success.

2. A campaign Russ against Byzantium in 860th.

There are some versions of a campaign Russ to Constantinople in 860th and dating of events. We shall familiarize with the accessible information on this war. The part of historians adheres to early date of an attack to New Rome in 860. Attack is known on the Byzantium, European and Old Russian sources. The description of a campaign to Constantinople in the earliest Old Russian Stories of time years (STY) [6] is borrowed from the Byzantium chronicle of Continuer Amartola, STY dates an attack in 866. Thus the historian of Russian church Golubinsky in 1880th under the Byzantium certificates specified 860-861.

In 1894 the Belgian scientist Frantz Cumon has published the chronicle of reign of the Byzantium emperors found out by him, the so-called Brussels chronicle [7] in which the mention of attack Russ contained, and exact date is on June 18, 860 [8] referred to. The citation [9]:

« Michael, son Theophilos [corrected] with his mother Theodora four years and one – ten years, and with Basil – one year and four months. In his reign on June 18 in 8-th Indict, in a summer 6368, on 5-th year of his board there came Dews on two hundred the ships which Divine Virgin were get down Christians, are completely defeated and destroyed »

Under this version on a decline on June 18, 860 about 200 Russ courts have moored to coast of Bosporus. John Diakon, the ambassador Venetian Doge Peter II Orselo and the author of the Venetian chronicle, informs on 360 ships. Except for quantity of the ships of Russ, Italian Chronic boundary X-XI century’s misses the Byzantium chronicle and in an estimation of results of attack [10]:

« At this time people of Normen [Normannorum gentes] on three hundred sixty the ships has dared to come nearer to Constantinople. But as they could not damage unapproachable city at all, they have impudently devastated vicinities, having interrupted there a plenty to people and so with triumph have come back [et sic praedicta gens cum triumpho ad propriam regressa est] »

Presumably these ships were rather big, capable to contain 30-40 people as typical court of Vikings. It agrees STY [6] Prophetic Oleg, demanding a tribute from Tsargrad, 40 person on the ship spoke, that at him, and if it could exaggerate to not underestimate in any way. The big ships Russ simply could not be lead through Dnepr thresholds or the lower reaches of Don controllable Khazarian. Thus, the general number Russ, participating in attack, was up to 8000 person.

Is military-political conditions of these years in Byzantium was restless. About 860 Byzantium waged fierce war with Arabs in Asia Minor. In March the garrison of fortress Lulon having the important strategic value, has surrendered to Arabs. In April – May of the party have made an exchange captured, however already in the beginning of June the Byzantium emperor Michael III in the chapter of army leaves Constantinople for intrusion on territory Caliphate of Abbasid. As Continuer Amartol informs, for protection of capital has been left Eparch Orih. In chronicle Semen Logophet it is spoken, that the message about an attack of Russ has overtaken emperor at Mavropotam (the Black river). Researchers carry Mavropotam to Cappadocia, area in Asia Minor in 500 km from Constantinople. Invasion of Russia appeared full unexpectedness for the inhabitants of Constantinople who was not waiting for an attack on the part of the Black sea. The capital of Byzantium was protected by a double high wall on the part of a land. On the part of a passage Bosporus and bays of the Gold Horn the wall was low – there and have landed Russ.

Byzantines vaguely represented, who has attacked them. Photios in days of attack named Russ « people from the north », « people from edges of the ground ». In the sermon patriarch Photios has colorfully described ritual sacrifices Russ as which has counted as penalty sirs for sins of inhabitants [11]:

« It was possible to see the babies who are torn away by them from dummies and milk, and at the same time and from a life, and their artless coffin – about mountain! – rocks about which they were broken; mothers sobbing from burning and pinned up near to the newborns who are convulsively letting out last sigh … not only a human nature their atrocity has overtaken, but also all dumb animals, bulls, horses, birds and other, got on ways, pierced ferocity of them; the bull laid near to the person, both the child and a horse had a tomb under one roof, and women and birds get blood each other »

Attack Russ has mentioned not only capital of Byzantium, but also neighboring places, in particular Princes islands in Marmara Sea. Disgraced Constantinople patriarch Ignatius, being in the reference to one of islands, has hardly avoided destruction as on it informs Nikita Paphlogonian in Vita patriarch Ignatius, the composition of beginning X of a century:

« At this time soiled by murder more, than someone from Scythians, people, named Grew, on Black Pont come to Stenon and having ruined all settlements, all monasteries, now made attacks on taking place close Byzantium of [Constantinople] of island, plundering all [precious] vessels and treasures, and having grasped people, all of them killed. Besides in a barbarous impulse having made attacks on the patriarchal monasteries, they in anger grasped everything, that found, and, having seized there twenty two noblest inhabitants on forage of the ship of all have chopped poleaxes »

Texts of Homilies (sermons) with which patriarch Photios has addressed to inhabitants of Constantinople during it attack of Russ and soon after their deviation were kept. The second Homilies are presumably dated on August 4, by this time Russ has left vicinities of city. Photios informs that attacking have left with huge extraction. It speaks nothing about the reason of leaving Russ, considering as a miracle, that they have not taken Constantinople [11]:

« For as soon as dressed Virgin has bypassed walls, barbarians, having refused from attack, were removed from camp, and we were forgive from a forthcoming captivity and have received unexpected rescue … Unexpected there was an invasion of enemies – their deviation … » was unintentional also

At the same time Photios unambiguously emphasizes, that deviation attacking from Constantinople has taken place under the initiative Russ [11]:

« About as all then was upset, and city hardly so to say, has not been lifted on a spear! When it was easy to take it, and inhabitants cannot be protected, it is obvious, on will of the enemy depend - to suffer to it or to not suffer... Rescue of city was in hands of enemies, and preservation of it depends on their magnanimity... The city is not taken on their favor and the infamy attached to suffering from this magnanimity strengthens painful feeling of capture »

Later authors, such as the continuer of the chronicle of George Amartol, Lion Grammatik and Theodosius from Mileten, inform, that Michael III is fast without an army has returned to capital, « hardly having made the way », and together with Photios has uplifted prays to the God, has shipped maphory the Mother of god in the sea. The strong storm has suddenly risen and swept court Russ then those ran. This legend repeat is later The Brussels chronicle and STY [6].

Kind to Sea of Marmara (Propontida) from the satellite.

On the other hand, Photios, the eyewitness and the participant of events, does not inform on returning emperor in the besieged capital that absolutely excludes a similar variant of succession of events, but speaks about the quiet sea. The letter from September 28, 865 daddies Nicolas I to emperor Michael III contains a mention of recent plunder of vicinities of Constantinople by pagans (pagan) which have left, having avoided any revenge (nulla fit ultio). In « the Venetian chronicle » John Diakon who has been not interested in glorification of the Byzantium church and emperor, attacking (normanorum gentes) « have returned with triumph » (triumpho ad propriam regressa est). Continuer Theophanous in The Biography of emperor Basil names people Russ "invincible", addressing to a christening Russ soon after attack in 860. The story about wonderful punishment Russ, thus, appears no more than pious imagination Byzantium chronics.

The reasons of leaving Russ a traditional history are unknown. Researchers put forward different versions: or Russ were afraid of the approach of the Byzantium army, or simply did not wish to be involved in attack, having satisfied with rich extraction, or hoped to conclude the favorable trading contract with empire.

The attack to Tsargrad in 860th precisely corresponds to events of the first christening of Russia known from orthodox sources. The military attack has ended with negotiations with embassy Russ. About ambassadors of Russ in Constantinople soon after attack it is spoken in the district message of patriarch Photios to east Patriarchs (the beginning 867) and from continuer Theophanous. Conditions of the made contract are not resulted, however both sources inform on desire Russ to be christened. Photios has satisfied this desire and has directed to Russ bishop [12]:

« … even for many repeatedly well-known and all leaving behind in ferocity and bloodshed, that so-called people Grew - those who, having enthralled living around they so excessively having become proud, were lifted with hands on power Rome! But nowadays, however, and they have changed pagan and godless belief in which stayed before, on pure and genuine religion of Christians, … having put in position of citizens and welcome instead of recent against us a robbery and great impudence. And thus has so ignited their passionate aspiration and eagerness to belief …, that they have received bishop and the pastor and with great diligence and diligence meet Christian ceremonies »

Continuer Theophanous contains one more story made in 950th, about a christening Russ in days of Basil I (867-886) and patriarch Ignatius (867-877). It agrees to it already Byzantines for nothing persuade Russ to accept Christianity the chapter of Russian church receives a dignity of archbishop. Possible date of a christening in a history of Continuer Theophanous close adjoins to possible date of a christening on Photios but if in both cases the question is the same event the certificate of the participant of a christening of patriarch Photios more authentically.

In messages on the first christening Russ it is not resulted, this people and who was their governor where exactly lived. In the Church-academic environment it is considered quite established [13,14], that princes Askold and Dir with "boyars" and a quantity of people have accepted a christening in Kiev from bishop (probably, from Cyril and Methodios), sent by Constantinople patriarch Photios in the beginning or the middle of 860th. At the end of IX century Russ diocese already is registered in lists of Constantinople Bishops all over again on 61-th, then on 60-th place. These events sometimes call the first (Photios’s or Askold’s) a christening of Russia.

In Stories of time years it is informed [6]:

« Askold and Dir have remained in this city, have collected at itself much Vikings and began to own land glades. Rurik reigned in Novgorod.
[… …]

In a year 6374 (866). Have gone Askold and Dir war on Greeks, and came to them in 14-th year of reign of Michael. Tsar was at this time in a campaign on agarian, has reached already the Black river when eparch has sent it a message, that Russia goes a campaign to Tsargrad, and tsar has come back. Same have come inside of Court, set of Christians have killed and have besieged Tsargrad two hundred the ships. Tsar has hardly come in city and all the night long prayed with patriarch Photios in church of the sacred Virgin in Blachernae, and they with songs have born a divine cope of the sacred Virgin, and have moistened in the sea to its floor. There was at this time a silence, and the sea was quiet, but the storm with a wind here has suddenly risen, and there were huge waves, swept the ships godless Russian, and has beaten them to coast, and has broken, so few from them managed to avoid this trouble and to come back home »

The Novgorod first annals younger izvod [15], in convincing opinion of Russian historian Shakhmatov [16], contains in an initial part of data from more ancient annals of XI century. In the description of a campaign this annals does not mention participation Askold and Dir in it, no less than about their communication with Rurik. On the basis of it many historians [17,18] assume, that data STY (written in XII century) about Askold and Dir as leaders of a campaign to Constantinople are the latest insert of Russian chronist [19], called to unit in a single whole isolated data on an ancient history of Russia. In the first Russian annals it was not kept also data on a christening of Russia at Photios as this event was mentioned by continuer George Amartol.

On Bulgarian chronicles [20], volume I, page 37-38 an attack to New Rome in 860th were authorized by one of leaders Bulgarian and Khazarian bek Iljas. Prince Iljas in the beginning was the Christian and tried to promote in Tsargrad. His father Tamjan was poisoned with Romans, therefore the son tested hatred to Byzantines. Then Iljas has accepted an Islam and has got over in Khazar Khaganate. The governor long years rendered an essential role for political life Bulgaria, Russia, Khazaria and Byzantium.

The commentator Bulgarian chronicles dates an attack Russ to New Rome in 860:

« Then in 860 [Iljas] has ordered Djir and As – Halib to make a sudden and ruthless attack on the city of Rum. Both bek have executed this order, but the big losses have had. It has confused many Sadunian, Balynian and Bashtunian, decided, that Christian gods are stronger than their pagan gods... Djir, weighed Khazar authority and expecting to the aid Rome in struggle against it, the first has accepted false belief Christian, and behind it was made by some influential Balynian boyars »

Thus, on Bulgarian to sources Kiev princes Askold and Dir referred to Bulgarian the As – Halib and Djir. That is they were Vikings, adherents of Tangra, but have then accepted Christianity in New Rome. Date 860 has appeared at commentator of Tarihy Chronic from a traditional history.

Let's offer our reconstruction of events in 860th in New Rome and the neighboring states. Senior son Constantine Blind named Russ Aydar (797-855) rules about 820 in Kiev where has created Russ Khaganate, recognized Bulgarian an empire as an independent princedom. Aydar's children were senior son Gabrulla Djilki (known to us has taken a place of the father in 855) and younger son Lachyn (the Clear Falcon) as Rurik (has formed own princedom in Novgorod in 862). Younger son Constantine Blind named Basil (805-886) as we have already written above, has located in 836 in Prusa, near to Constantinople. Returning of Basil in a native empire it was accompanied by the first sortie of Russ to Constantinople and Paphlagonia for reception of material indemnification for the lost throne of New Rome.

We believe that in 866 Basil has received the political patronage and military support Hagan Iljas for an attack to New Rome with a view of restoration of a sort of Russia on throne of Tsargrad. Vikings princes of Kiev As – Halib (Askold) and Djir (Dir) with army by the ships came all over again in the city of Prusa where have taken away other armies Russ and the son of emperor Constantine Blind is Basil. The incorporated fleet Russ on road has plundered islands of Marmara Sea and attacked Constantinople. Therefore Russian chronicle STY [6] truly dated events 866 as they correspond to process of becoming of Russian statehood and returning to the Macedonian dynasty of Russ – Flavius on a throne of Byzantium. Date 866 is supported also with church sources on which in 867 year there was a first christening of Russia patriarch Photios.

Military pressure of Russia has led to Basil's to recognition co-Cesar to Roman empire in 866 instead of uncle Vardu of emperor Michael III. Vikings of Russ have been obliged to participate in Basil's plot when on September 24, 867 in the third one o'clock in the morning emperor Michael has been killed in own bedroom. As a result of murder illegal, from the point of view of Russia, emperor of New Rome Michael, on a throne of empire the Sort of Russia has returned on behalf of emperor Basil I which has based the Macedonian dynasty.

Crowning of Basil I the founder of the Macedonian dynasty in 867.

Thus, the military attack Russ in 866 to Byzantium has completely solved objects in view and problems. Already on September 24, 867 Russ became the full mistress of New Rome. Stories of chronists about defeat Russ in that war are stupid, written by the late commentators living after 1055 when the Macedonian dynasty has lost the control over Constantinople.

Enthronization of Basil I in New Rome has led to occurrence of co-emperor Constantine Lakapin in 869 which corrected up to 879. On our reconstruction of a history Constantine Lakapin it is Rurik, Bulgarian which name Lacyn. The nickname of dynasty Lakapine co-emperor corresponds to the Macedonian dynasty Rurikovich-Lacynovich. Further the throne of New Rome was borrowed in common with emperors of the Macedonian dynasty and the Russian dynasty Rurikovich, named by Byzantines is Lakapine. Thus Macedonians constantly were in Constantinople, and Rurikovich were there arrivals and were registered on masters mostly formally, out of respect for a seniority of the sort going from senior brother Basil I named Russ Aydar.

Dynastic communications of the Macedonian dynasty and Rurikovich have become stronger by marriage Rurik in 970 on princess Enviga, sister of Prophetic Oleg. We believe, that Prophetic Oleg (Leo-Lion) was son Basil I from his first wife Maria, and at all from Evdokia Ingerina, mistresses is Michael III. Under Russian chronicles Prophetic Oleg had brother-in-law Rurik. Hence, wife Rurika could be one of Prophetic Oleg's sisters, names of sisters at christening: Anastasia, Anna, Maria or Elena. On Anastasia's Byzantium sources has married by general Christopher. For the decision of a question who from Prophetic Oleg's four sisters became wife Rurik, it is necessary to carry out additional research.

3. The Caspian campaign of Russia in 864-884.

The first attack Russ on the Caspian region has taken place between 864 and 884, or as it is told at the historian of XIII century ibn Isfandijar in History of Tabaristan, in days of board of emir Tabaristan Alid Al Hasan ibn Zajda [21]. Russ has attacked the city of Abaskun in Astrabad gulf, former the largest port at southern coast at that time. Today town Abaskun is the missed city, a prospective site near village Gomishan in Iran, in a mouth of the river Gorgan.

Ibn Isfandijar anything else does not inform on this attack except that emir « has interrupted all Russ ». The reason of spot-check if only it was not only piracy attack, probably, began activity highlander of Tabaristan is Daylamites which in 872 destabilized trade, having grasped a number of cities, switching Djurjan and Rej where at Russ there were trading stations.

We believe that, probably, this attack the part of Vikings has made flotillas Askold and Dir after an attack to Constantinople in 866. Vikings to not lose fighting spirit and opportunities of their flotilla have decided to attack the rich grounds of Persia. Having got over with Don to Volga, they have got to Caspian Sea. Their military sortie has come to the end with defeat and destruction of all participants of expedition of Russ free people.

4. The Russ-Byzantium war in 907.

The military attack Russ to New Rome in 907 is connected to a legendary victorious campaign of Old Russian prince Oleg. Expedition is in detail described in STY [6]. War has come to the end with signing of the peace treaty in 907. In Russian mythology the campaign is known on a phrase: « Prophetic Oleg has beaten the board on gates of Tsargrad ». However the given attack do not mention in one Byzantium or other source, except for Old Russian annals. But in 911 the new Russ-Byzantium contract which reliability under doubt is not put has been made.

Let's describe the known facts of military opposition, and then we shall give the comments to the occurring events.

Prince Oleg shows young Igor to princes Askold and Dir.

STY [6] begins the story about a campaign to Tsargrad with transfer of Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples and tribes with which Oleg has involved in a campaign:

« In a year 6415 (907). There was Oleg on Greeks, having left Igor in Kiev; has taken with itself set Vikings, and Slavs, both Chudi, and Krivichi, both Mery, and Drevlyani, and Radimichi, both glades, and northerners, both Vyatichi, and Croatian, both Duleba, and Tiverian, known as Tolmachi: these all were named by Greeks Great Scythia. And with these all there was Oleg on horses and in the ships; also was the ships number 2000. Also has come to Tsargrad: Greeks have closed Court, and city has shut. Oleg on coast also has left, and started to be at war, and many murders have created in vicinities of city to Greeks, and have broken set of chambers, and churches burned. And those whom have captured, one finished, others have tortured, others have shot, and the some people have abandoned in the sea, and a lot of other evil have made Russian to Greeks as enemies » usually do

According to the annals, a part of an army moved on coast on horses, another on sea on two thousand ships, each of which contained on 40 people. However the text of the Novgorod annals younger izvod [22], which under the assumption of historian Shakhmatov contains a part of the earliest not kept annals (the Initial arch) in a primary kind, does not speak about 2 thousand ships, but about 100 or 200 ships (« And precept to Oleg a tribute give on 100, 200 ship... »). Historians avoid treatment of not clear phrase initial chronist in XI century, but from it the figure in 2000 ships is easily deduced by later author STY. In other details author STY [6] follows the story of the Initial arch with more exact instruction of dates. The round figure in 200 ships could be taken from the story about earlier attack of Russia to Tsargrad in 860.

Then in the description of a campaign legends begin. Oleg has put the ships on wheels and at a fair wind has moved on a field to Constantinople. The scared Greeks have requested the world, have born the poisoned wine and have not accepted. Then Greeks have agreed to Oleg's conditions: to pay on 12 grivnas to each soldier, to carry out separate payments for the benefit of princes of Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl, Polotsk, Rostov, Lubech and other cities. Novgorod has not come in the list of cities that it I peep Oleg will be coordinated to archeological date of formation of city (after 931, which). On STY [6] tribute is specified also in 12 grivnas « on a rowlock », that leaves without compensation of horse participants of a campaign.

Attack of an army of prince Oleg to Tsargrad in 907.

Besides single payments, to Byzantium the constant tribute has been imposed and the contract (Agreement in 907), regulating stay and trade of Russian merchants in Byzantium are made. After mutual oaths Oleg has hung up as a token of a victory a board on a gate of Tsargrad, then has ordered to Greeks to sew sails: for Russ from special material (gold silk), to Slavs from koprina (simple silk). According to the annals, after returning prince Oleg to Kiev with rich extraction people has nicknamed his Prophetic.

Some analogy to sails from precious fabrics is traced in the Scandinavian saga about the future Norwegian king Olav Tryggvason, written down by monk Oddom at the end of XII century. Prince Olav served at prince Vladimir in 980th and has made a campaign to Byzantium, according to the saga for a christening. One of military attacks is described so [23]:

« Speak, after one great victory it home in Gardi has turned [Russia]; they were floating then with such big magnificent, that they had sails by their ships from precious matters, both their tents » were same also

After a victory prince Oleg has concluded in Constantinople the world on very favorable conditions. Coming in city Russian actually were on the maintenance of the Byzantium authorities and did not pay duties. The contract is retold in words the formal – remedial maintenance is lowered.

It is in September 911 (on STY in 912 because of the beginning of New Year since March 1) have been made the new contract of Byzantium with Russia, the list with which is completely resulted in the annals. The maintenance of the contract 907 is not crossed in any way with the contract 911, except for names of ambassadors, but almost reproduces a fragment from the Russ-Byzantium contract 944 literally. The Table № 1 transfers the text of the Agreement in 907 according to fragments from later Russ-Byzantium contracts below.

The Novgorod first annals younger izvod [22] states events differently, naming two campaigns to Byzantium of Igor with the colonel Oleg, dating those 920 and 922:

« And to be at him colonel, named Oleg, the husband wise and brave... In year 6430 [922]. Come Oleg on Greek and rich Tsargrad; and Greek make court, and a hailstones close »

Thus the campaign 920 under the description is reproduced with well documentary campaign of prince Igor in 941. In the Byzantium chronicle Pseudo – Simeon (last third X of century) is told about dews (Russia) [24]:

« Dews, or still dromitas, have received the name from certain powerful Dew after they managed to avoid consequences of that oracles predicted about them, due to any caution or divine inspiration of the one who dominated over them. Dromitas they referred to because could move quickly »

In this fragment some researchers are ready to see the elements similar to a prediction Volhv of the future death to Oleg, and in Dew – Prophetic Oleg. In the popular literature constructions are widely quoted. Nikolaev [25] say about attack Russ-Dromitas to Byzantium in 904. Dews, according to Nikolaev (Pseudo – Simeon does not mention it), have been broken at cape Trikefal by the Byzantium admiral John Radin and only the part of them was rescued from « Greek fire » due to inspiration of their leader.

A.G. Kuzmin [26], investigating the text of Story of time years about prince Oleg, has assumed, that chronics used the Greek or Bulgarian sources about Oleg's campaign. Chronics gives of a word of Byzantines:

« It not Oleg, but the sacred Dmitry sent on us by the God ».

These words can specify 904 when Constantinople did not render the help to the city of Thessaloniki as which patron Dmitry Solunsky therefore city dwellers have undergone to destruction was considered events, and only the part of them managed to be redeemed from hands of pirates. In not clear from a context to a phrase of Byzantines about over. Dmitry the hint on Dmitry Constantinople's revenge, guilty of plunder of Thessaloniki could contain.

Byzantium chroniclers have passed over in silence an attack of Russia to New Rome in 907. Only in History of Lion Deacon there is a certificate of a reality not so much a campaign, how many the peace is treaty: John Tsimishy during negotiations with Svyatoslav reminds it as prince Igor, « having disdained the oath contract », has attacked the Byzantium capital. Here, in opinion of M.J. Sjuzjumova and S.A.Ivanov [27], and also A.A. Vasiljeva [28] means Oleg's contract 911, the prisoner after a campaign 907 and known on STY [6].

G.G. Litavrin has found the contract such, that it « without military pressure on the part of Russia was absolutely impossible » [29]. At the conclusion the empire of the contract with other country, made the basic copy of the contractual letter on behalf of emperor, then same in the Greek language, but on behalf of the governor of other country, and already this letter translated into language of people with which agreed. The known linguist, academician S.P. Obnorsky has concluded, that the text of the contract 911 years translation dazzles Greeks and infringements of requirements of Russian syntax [30, 31].

Thus, the texts of contracts included in the Story of time years, testify that the campaign was not full fiction. Some historians are inclined to explain silence of the Byzantium sources incorrect dating of war in Stories. There were attempts to connect her with attack "Russ-Dromitas" in 904 when Byzantium battled to the pirate Lion Tripole. The most probable hypothesis has been put forward by B.A. Rybakov and L.N. Gumilyov: the description of a campaign 907 in Stories actually concerns to war 860 which place has borrowed the message on unsuccessful spot-check Askold and Dir in 866, get from the Byzantium legends about wonderful disposal of Christians of hostile pagans.

Thus Russia from beginning X of a century acts in the Greek texts as the ally of Byzantium. Patriarch Nicolas Mistik (901-906, 912-925) threatens Bulgaria with Russian intrusion. It is known, that 700 Russian mercenaries took part in unsuccessful Byzantium expedition to Crete in 911, and 415 Vikings on 7 courts – on the Italian expedition in 936. The union of Russia and Byzantium in 909-910 proves to be true Constantine Porphyrogennetos data on participation of Russian auxiliary courts in Crete expeditions in 910.

Some scientists consider that dating of a campaign of Prophetic Oleg has conditional character 907. In A.G. Kuzmin's opinion [26] initially the information of the end of board of Oleg was dated in STY 6415 (907), but at checking with date of the contract 911, dating has been changed, therefore has appeared two annalistic clauses in which it was spoken about a campaign, the conclusion of the contract and Oleg's death. So in the annals have appeared two contracts (the text and his "retelling"). Thus, the events described in clauses 907 and 912, initially in any way were not dated, but have been connected, as, for example, in the text Ioakim annals in which there is no absolute dating and data on death of prince:

« After that Oleg possessed all country of that, many peoples to itself has subdued, went to be at war on Greeks by sea and has forced those the world to buy, has come back with honor great and riches many ».

At the same time in STY [6] there is also a relative dating of a campaign. In the text it is told, that the prediction Volhvs about Oleg's death has come true for the fifth summer after his campaign to Constantinople. Oleg's "Death" in 912 (are possible to date time not later than July the bringing of victims mentioned by V.N. Tatischev, at occurrence of comet Halley), or the autumn of this year specified in the annals (time of people). The campaign 913 has finished Oleg's career (it was lost or has left on the north). Hence, the campaign to Byzantium falls at 907-908.

On Bulgarian to chronicles [20], volume II, page 25 prince Oleg (Bulgarian called it Salahbi), being the vassal Bulgarian Hagan Almysh, has attacked Constantinople:

« In 907 Salahbi under order of Almysh has made successful attack on capital of Byzantium and has forced her to refuse support Khazar horde »

Thus, we believe, that real date of an attack of an army of Prophetic Oleg to Tsargrad is dated 907. Attack has come to the end with full military and political success. The enslaving contract for Byzantium with Russia has been made. In 911 the contract has been improved aside Russia.

On our reconstruction of a history Prophetic Oleg is completely identified with emperor of Macedonian dynasty Leo (Lion) VI Philosopher. The spelling of a name Oleg in the Greek language practically coincides with name Leo (Greek Λέων ΣΤ ' ο Σοφός, Leōn VI). Still academician Shakhmatov has noticed similarity of the biography of Prophetic Oleg and emperor of the Lion Wise [4].

Prince Oleg – emperor the Lion in beginning X century carried out a lot of time in the Kiev Russ. Son of Rurik, Igor Rurikovich was the weak governor and all military-political questions of Russian princedom were solved by uncle Igor on a female line – Oleg. At this time in Tsargrad Alexander, the future emperor of New Rome, and his mother, by origin the Greek woman were engaged in affairs of empire. Alexander Great was stepbrother Prophetic Oleg.

Often absence of the Lion Philosopher in capital and his love affairs has led to occurrence of plot of Greeks on Enthronization of Alexander. In result the working emperor has been compelled to collect an army in the Kiev Russia and a misfortune to Tsargrad for restoration of the rights. Attack of allied armies Vikings, Finno-Ugric and Slavs has strengthened position of emperor Prophetic Oleg – Lion Philosopher on a throne of empire. Oleg's symbolical gesture with beat a board to a gate of Tsargrad speaks that the Lion Philosopher – Prophetic Oleg can be in any place of the world, but his authority always remains in Tsargrad. As a trophy Russia has received preferential in trade with Byzantium and guaranteed free-of-charge stay of merchants and Vikings in Tsargrad. The victorious contract 907 has been improved aside Russia in 911. Military pressure of Russia has led to amplification of attempts of the Greek elite of Tsargrad to ratify on a throne of empire of the protege – Alexander Great, co-emperor of Basil I and the Lion Philosopher.

Attack of prince Oleg to Tsargrad in 907.

Prosecution of Russian armies horse army of Byzantium.

Our assumption of problems with authority of the Lion – Oleg in Tsargrad proves to be true his family adventures connected to attempts to legalize a marriage and a birth of the successor - Constantine Porphyrogennetos. In beginning X century the Lion began to live together with Zoe Karboropsina (that means Black Eyes), however the fourth marriage of emperor was impossible under laws of empire (on the basis of the initial right), that subsequently has entailed an excommunication of emperor from Church. In May 905 at the Lion and Zoe son Constantine whom patriarch Nicolas has agreed to christen only a year later on January 6, 906 was born, and in some months court priest Thomas against will of the patriarch has married the Lion and Zoe. For it the patriarch has forbidden to the Lion to enter into church to which had to be present on service in minatory – premise on the southern party of a temple over. Sofia where emperors had rest after service Nicolas promised to remove epitome for Christmas, but and has not made it. At last on February, 1 emperor has invited 907 years of Nicolas to a feast, long convinced to recognize his marriage and, having convinced, that all is vain, has banished it on Galakrin (island at the Asian coast of Bosporus) and has made the new patriarch of the prior capital Psamaf monastery Euthymius which, at last, has recognized a marriage lawful.

So, our hypothesis completely comes on intra family problems of the Lion – Oleg in Tsargrad, and also his complex attitudes with church and local elite. Military invasion of Russia has strengthened positions of the Lion – Oleg in his status of emperor, and also the right of juvenile son Constantine Porphyrogennetos on a throne. In 908 the Lion VI crowned 3-years Constantine as co-emperor to provide rights of actually illegitimate son.

Greeks repeatedly tried to kill Prophetic Oleg, since bringing the poisoned gifts – meal and drink Russ in 907. On the Byzantium sources the Lion the Philosopher has died on May 11, 912 of « gastric illness », having transferred a throne to the stepbrother Alexander Great. Under other version the Lion has been poisoned with mother Alexander. As a result of murder of the Lion – Oleg military successes of Russ in 907 and Agreements in 911 have been put under doubt by the Greek party of Byzantium. However year later, on June 6, 913 emperor Alexander Great has fallen victim to new plot is it also has been poisoned. As a result of intrigues and attempts the eight-year son of the Lion of the Philosopher – Oleg by name Constantine Porphyrogennetos became sovereign emperor of New Rome, having continued friendly and related attitudes of the Macedonian dynasty with Russ.

5. The Caspian campaigns in 909-910 and 913-914.

Concerning attack in 909 exist the various points of view. Probably, independent expeditions to the period between 909 and 914 took place some. Or behind different descriptions one big campaign described in the following section under 913 disappears. In the autumn 909-910 (year on a Muslim calendar grasps two calendar years on a Christian calendar) Russian fleet from 16 ships again has attacked on Abaskun (modern Iran). Having plundered it, Russian has landed at coast. The governor of area Sari – Ahmad ben Al Kasim has received the help from Samanid and has broken Russ in night attack in vicinities of steppe Mugansk.

The next year Russ came the big number and burn the city of Sari, have grasped a lot of captured and have put out to sea. After that they were divided: the part has remained by the ships, and the part has left on coast and has intruded in Dejlem. Ibn Isfandijar it is compressed transfers the further succession of events [32]:

« Inhabitants Gilyan have come on seacoast and burn the ships at night and have killed what were on coast; others, taking place in the sea, have escaped. As tsar Shirvanshah (emir of Shirvan,) has received a part of modern Azerbaijan about it news, it has ordered to arrange in the sea an ambush and, finally, any of them has not survived. And so often occurrence Russ in this country has been suspended »

The most scale expedition has taken place in 913-914 on traditional dating history. Its circumstances are known better others under the story Al Masudi [33], the received data from local population. It agreed Al Masudi this first occurrence Russ on Caspian sea, for local residents it became a shock. This statement not necessarily denies the fact of the previous campaigns as they were local.

Map of the Caspian region and Caucasus in Middle Ages.

The campaign has taken place soon "after" 300 years on a Muslim calendar (912/913). Historians, analyzing the text Al Masudi, converge on date of a campaign 913 year. The fleet from 500 Russian ships, contained each of which on 100 soldiers has come in Kerch strait which is taking place under the control Khazarian. Russ have contacted Khazar tsar, asked at him the sanction to pass across Volga to Caspian sea, having offered for it half of future extraction. Hagan has agreed, as on the eve in 909 or 912 Khazarian in the union with Dagestan princes were at war with the near-Caspian states Derbents and Shirvan. Through Don Russ were forwarded to Volga, whence have gone down to Caspian Sea.

Having penetrated to Caspian Sea, Russ was divided into groups and has begun a robbery of cities at southern coast. To impacts have undergone Gilyan, Dejlem, Tabaristan, Abaskun. Then Russ was displaced to the western coast, having attacked on Azerbaijan and Shirvan. Al Masudi so describes these events [33]:

« And Russ shed blood, took prisoner women and children, plundered property, dismissed horsemen [for attacks] and burn. Peoples lived about this sea, with horror cry for done not happen since the most ancient time that the enemy has struck on them here, and arrived here only court of merchants and fishers »

Opposite to Baku Russ have stopped on the next islands where on them tsar of Shirvan Ali ibn Al Hajtam has organized an attack, having collected local residents. Those by boats and merchant courts have directed to islands, but Russ has killed and has sunk thousand Moslems. After that Russ remained on islands within « many months », in an environment of neighboring peoples watching them. It became inconvenient after to make attacks, Russ have decided to stop a campaign and have gone to sources of Volga. Having arrived in Itil, they have satisfied the treaty provision and have handed over Khazar Hagan his share. However the imperial guards consisted of Moslems has demanded revenge for coreligionists. Hagan could not prevent it, but as if has had time to warn Russ about danger. The weakened Russian army was left in fight with Moslems (15 thousand horsemen) whom local Christians have joined also, in battle on land. The place of battle precisely is not specified, but it is possible to assume, that Khazar horse army has trapped Russ in a place drag to Don. Fight last three days, in a result it was possible to leave by the ships upwards across Volga to 5 thousand Russ. The rests Russ, having thrown the ships, have left on coast in the country Burtasian (the western coast on the average the Volga region) where they have finally exterminated Burtasian and Volga Bulgarian. Everything, by words Al Masudi, has counted 30 thousand killed Russ, and from that time up to 943 (time of a spelling of the composition Al Masudi) about attacks Russ to Caspian Sea was not audible.

In Bulgarian annals [6], volume I, page 54 is spoken about a finishing stage of route of an army Russ in Bulgar:

« Salar has attacked on Galijian [Novgorodian], and those have found for the blessing to go in Bashtu through Bolgar. Hud Anatysh it is very self-confident, for had 5 thousand perfectly armed soldiers, but at Bolgar it was waited already Salahbi [by Prophetic Oleg] with the ships. Only to one ship of Hud it was possible to break in Djir – the others were or are sunk, or have moored to coast...

In total on coast has left 3 thousand Sadumian and Galij Balinian [armies Russ], and we had to tinker much before all enemies have been crushed, and a neck of the wounded man It is thin has overflowed lasso Byrak. Almysh has given out Hud to Bershud bek, and Byrak has hung up it on a tree near the rate on the river Djau-Shir with words: “ Serve, about the most brave, to our God Tangra and let it will revive you again already on our ground! ”

It was considered as a great honor for unworthy opponents Bulgarian on Hon to custom burnt... To son Byrak has given in memory about Hud name Anatysh. Then remains bek of Sadumian have fallen under a tree and began to be esteemed chirmishs, making sacrifices near them before performance on war. And the tree and this place have received the name Hud Imen... »

Let's comment on events of the Caspian campaigns in 909-914 from the point of view of our reconstruction of a history. We believe that in 909-910 Alexander Great is the brother of emperor of the Lion Philosopher – Prophetic Oleg, just was at war in Persia and Central Asia and formed the Macedonian empire. A part of princes of Russia have collected an army for support of operations of Alexander in Persia (Iran). The motivation of a campaign has consisted, certainly, in capture of trophies. Russ believed that they will be supported Alexander's with armies. Hopes were not justified, and expedition has been destroyed by local governors.

The second wave of an attack on the Caspian region and Persia (our dating of a campaign is 911-912) has been connected to military successes Alexander Great, by this time already created the empire in Persia and Central Asia. The purpose of a campaign of Russian princes, probably, was reception of a share of riches and territories of Asia for senior brother Alexander – Prophetic Oleg and an establishment of authority of Russian party of Tsargrad in Persia, therefore so significant armies – about 30 thousand people there have been directed. The local authorities, submitting Alexander Great, showed to Russ aggressor’s desperate resistance. In a result armies with trophies had to return back to Khazaria. Long expedition has come to the end with a failure as Khazarian the elite has betrayed arrangements with Russian princes because of religious disagreements and greed Kharaz. Russian army has been broken on the bottom Volga, but the part of the ships has broken upwards on the river and has gone to the Novgorod grounds through the Volga Bulgaria. Burtasian and Bulgarian have finished the rests of army Russ, having grasped their trophies from the Persian campaign. Followed then the death Alexander the Great in the summer in 913 has led to disintegration of his Asian empire on a part.

Alexander Great. To a bust ostensibly is 2300 years.

Emperor Alexander Great (880-913). A mosaic of the Temple of Sacred Sofia, X century. The person of emperor surprisingly coincides with features of a bust "Alexander Great" (at the left).

Thus, the Caspian expeditions of beginning X century in 909-912 of armies of Prophetic Oleg have ended with full fiasco and loss of significant manpower resources. Treachery and insidiousness Khazar Khaganate have for ever generated hatred of Russian princes to Khazarian and have led half-centuries later to total destruction of Khazaria.

6. The Russ-Byzantium war in 941-944.

Let's consider known circumstances of military campaigns of prince Igor to Byzantium in 941-944. The first, unsuccessful expedition of prince Igor to Byzantium has passed in 941, the second expedition was in 943. Last attack has ended with the peace treaty signed in 944.

So, on June 11, 941 Igor's fleet was absent-minded at an input to Bosporus the Byzantium squadron which has applied Greek fire then operations preceded 3 more months at the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor. On September 15, 941 Russian fleet have been finally crushed at coast of Thrace at attempt to break to Russia. In 943 prince Igor has collected a new army with participation Pechenegian and has led army to Danube to northern borders of the Byzantium empire. Business this time has not reached military collisions Byzantium has concluded the peace treaty with Igor, having paid the big tribute.

The Byzantium chronicles have kept the description of an attack of Igor. It is necessary to understand, that the Byzantium comments reflect an imperial sight at events, mean the last only for the benefit of Byzantium. The information contains in Chronicle Amartol (it is borrowed in Continuer Theophanous) and Vita Basil New [34], and also in historical work Liutprand from Kremon (the Book of requital, 5. XV) [35]. Thus messages of old Russian annals XI-XII of centuries are based as a whole on the Byzantium sources with addition of the separate details kept in Russian legends.

Continuer Theophanous [36] so begins the story about attack:

« On eleventh of June the fourteenth Indict (941) on ten thousand courts have come to Constantinople dews, them call also Dromitian, occur they from a tribe of francs. Against them with all dromon’s and trireme’s, which only appeared in city, has been sent patrician [Theophanous]. It has equipped and has put in order fleet, has strengthened itself a post and tears and has prepared to battle to dews »

Attack did not become unexpectedness for Byzantium. It is message about it beforehand have sent Bulgarian and later the strategist of Kherson. However the Byzantium fleet battled to Arabs and protected islands in Mediterranean Sea so, by words Liutprand, in capital remained only 15 dilapidated heulandites (type of a vessel), left because of their decay. Byzantines have counted quantity of the ships of Igor in improbable 10 thousand pieces. Liutprand from Kremon [35], transferring the story of the eyewitness, the stepfather, has named one thousand ships in Igor's fleet. On STY [6] and to certificate Liutprand from Kremon Russian in the beginning have rushed to plunder Minor Asia coast of the Black Sea, so defenders of Constantinople had time to prepare repulse and to meet Igor's fleet in the sea at an input to Bosporus, near to the city of Ieron.

The most detailed story about the first sea fight has left Liutprand [35]:

« Roman [the Byzantium emperor] ordered to come to it to ship builders, and has told him: « be now sent and immediately equip those heulandites, that there were [houses]. But place the device for a throwing of fire not only on a nose, but also on forage and on both boards »

So, when heulandites have been equipped according to his order, it has planted in them the most experienced husbands and ordered to go him towards to king Igor. They have sailed away. Having seen them in the sea, king Igor has ordered to the army to take them alive and to not kill. But kind and merciful God, wishing not only to protect those who esteems it, worships it, prays to it, but also to honor by their victory, has tamed winds, having calmed thus the sea; in fact differently it would be difficult for Greeks drop fire. So, it is having taken position in the middle of Russian [army], they [have started] to throw fire in all parties. Russ, having seen it, at once began to rush from courts to the sea, preferring it is better to sink in waves, rather than to burn down on fire. One, burdened by chain armors and helmets, at once have gone on a bottom sea, and they were not seen more, and by others, having floated, even in water continued to burn; nobody was rescued that day if has failed to run to coast. In fact the ships Russ because of the small size float and on shoaliness that deposits » cannot Greek heulandites because of deep.

The image of application by the Byzantian ships of Greek fire.

Amartol adds [36], that Igor's route after attack Greek fire heulandites was completed with a flotilla of the fighting Byzantium ships: dromon’s and trireme’s. It is considered that Russian on June 11, 941 have for the first time collided Greek fire, and memory of it was for a long time kept among Russian soldiers. Old Russian annals are the beginnings of XII century, so has transferred their words:

« As if a lightning heavenly Greeks and, starting up her, burn have at themselves us; because also have not overcome them »

It agrees STY [6] Russian in the beginning have suffered defeat from Greeks on land, only there was a severe route in the sea, but, probably, chronicler has reduced together the battles which have occurred at various times in different places. In conformity with STY and Liutprand from Kremon [6, 35] on it war has ended: Igor has returned with the escaped soldier’s home (on Lion Deacon he still had hardly probable 10 ships), and emperor Roman has enjoined to execute all captured Russ.

The Byzantium sources [34] describe continuation of campaign in 941 in Asia Minor where the part of Russian army after route under Ieron has receded. On Continuer Theophanous [36] operations at southern coast Black Sea developed as follows:

« Escaped have floated to east coast, to Sgore. Also has been sent then overland to them get from strategic patricians Varda Foka with horsemen and perfect soldiers. Dews have sent was in Bithynia fair group to be reserved by provisions and all necessary, but Varda Foka this group has overtaken, has crushed, has turned into flight and has killed his soldiers. There has come there in the chapter of all east army and the cleverest domestic shoal John Kurkuas whom, appearing that there here, has much killed come off from the enemies, and dews in fear before his impact have receded, did not dare to leave more the of court and to make sorties.

Many evil deeds have made dews up to the approach Roman armies: have betrayed to fire coast the Wall (Bosporus), and from captured one crucifixion on a cross, others drove in the ground, the third put targets and shot from onions. Captured of priest they have connected estates behind a back of a hand and drove him in a head iron nails. It is a lot of they burn and sacred temples. The winter however approached, at Russ the foodstuffs came to an end, they were afraid of a coming army domestic shoal Kurkuas, his reason and sharpness, were afraid also of sea battles and skilful maneuvers patricians Theophanous not less and consequently have decided to come back home. Trying to pass imperceptibly for fleet at night, they in September of the fifteenth Indict (941) were started up in navigation to Thracian coast, but have been met mentioned patricians Theophanous and have failed to be covered from his vigilant and valorous soul. The second battle is immediately fastened, and set of the ships has sunk, and many Russ were killed by the mentioned husband. Only the little managed to be rescued on the courts, to approach to coast Kily (Thrace) and to run with approach of night »

Thus, within all summer in 941Russian army plundered Anatolia coast of Black Sea, the basic forces of the Byzantium army did not come yet. STY [6] informs on 40 thousand soldiers in east army domestic Kurkuas besides groups Varda Foka (from Macedonia) and strategy Theodore (from Thrace). Operations were conducted Russ by attacks with ships which were inaccessible to the Byzantium fighting ships on Minor Asia shoaliness. At attempt to break to Russia, undertaken in the evening on September 15, 941, the fleet of Russ has been found out in the sea and destroyed near the city of Kily (Κοιλία) near an input to Bosporus. The destiny of Russian army after the second route on the sea has remained the unknown person. Hardly much managed to return to Russia as Russ annals hold back about such succession of events.

Old Russian sources so reconstructed a narration that all operations terminated on the first and unique sea defeat. Historian N.J. Polovoj explains this fact to that after defeat at Ieron Russ army was divided. The part of an army with Igor has returned to Russia, in Russian annals appeared their destiny however the most part of fleet is reflected only was rescued on shoaliness at coast of Asia Minor where the Greek ships could not steal up because of deep deposits. In quality colonel the part, which have stayed in Asia Minor of Russian army of N.J. Polovoj considers known on above mentioned Khazarian to source Halgu, which was at war with Byzantium 4 months. Also 4 months, from June till September 941, precede operations on Amartol [34].

Sea attack of prince Igor to Tsargrad.

Historian G.G. Litavrin [37] assumes, that Russ on shoaliness have penetrated into Bosporus and Marmara Sea where completely dominated. Such tactics has led to break of the message between European and Asian coast of Byzantium.

Igor's second campaign has taken place in 943. All data on it and the subsequent peace treaty contain only in Russian annals. STY [6] carries a campaign to 944:

« In year 6452. Igor has collected soldiers of many: Vikings, Russ, and glades, both Slovenian, and Kriviches, and Tiverian, - also has employed Pechenegian, and hostages from them has taken, - and has gone on Greeks in ladies [ships] and on horses, aspiring to revenge for itself »

The Byzantium emperor has been warned about an attack and has directed towards Russ and Pechenegian ambassadors. Negotiations have taken place somewhere on Danube. Igor has agreed to take a rich tribute and has returned to Kiev, having sent the allies Pechenegian to be at war against Bulgarian. On the decision recent route has affected the sea, combatants on advice so have expressed:

« Unless who knows – to whom to overcome: whether to us, whether him? Or with the sea who in the union? Not by the ground in fact we go, but on depth sea: all general death »

Historians date the second expedition in 943 (N.M. Karamzin, B.A. Fishermen, N.J. Polovoy [38-40]). The Novgorod First annals younger izvod [15, 22] which contains fragments of the annals of XI century, ostensibly wrongly dates Igor's campaign in 920 and informs on a repeated campaign in year that corresponds to 943 on more exact Byzantium chronology. Continuer Theophanous under the same year mentions the big campaign of "Turks" which has come to the end with the peace treaty with Byzantium. Greeks usually meant the Hungarians "Turks", begun to make attacks to Byzantium about 934, and is possible, that Old Russian reporter has confused Hungarians with Pechenegian. At least, Continuer Theophanous informs that after the contract with "Turks" in 943 peaces was kept 5 years.

Traditional historians assert, that the next year after the second campaign of prince Igor emperor Roman has sent ambassadors to Russia to restore the world. STY [6] dates the peace treaty in 945, but the mention in the contract of a name of Roman specifies in 944. In fact in December 944, Roman was will overthrow sons, Stephan and Constantine which there and then of authority were discharged by new emperor Constantine Porphyrogennetos.
The text of the Russ-Byzantium contract having military – trading character is completely quoted in STY. The comparative Table № 1 contracts with Byzantines look above. The document adjusts conditions of stay and trade of Russian merchants in Byzantium, defines the exact sums of fines for various offences and establishes the sums of the repayment for captives. Also there the regulations about of military mutual aid between Russian grand duke and the Byzantium emperors are formulated. In the following 945 after the conclusion of the contract Grand Duke Igor has been killed by Drevlyanian.

Thus, the traditional history considers that Igor's military campaigns are caused by extremely economic reasons - desire to conclude favorable trading contracts. It turns out, that Russian armies (40 thousand people) risked a life and sea courts for reception of a doubtful paper – contracts with Byzantium. It is difficult to find examples of similar philanthropy in a history.

We believe that similar treatments of events of the Russ-Byzantium wars are simply ridiculous.

On our reconstruction of a history military attacks Russ are connected exclusively to cases of loss of authority of Russia above a throne of New Rome. Trading preference in contracts with Byzantium were simply military trophies Russian Vikings and merchants.

In this context become clear mistake chronicles and comments to them, both Byzantium, and Russian sources. We shall consider conditions in New Rome in beginning X century. In 913 emperor becomes 7-years Constantine Porphyrogennetos. Byzantium began to operate a turn of regents and co-emperors. In 919 Russian party arranges wedding young Constantine Porphyrogennetos with coeval and cosine Elena. The girl was daughter Igor Rurikovich which Greeks named Lakapin, and princesses Olga, it come from capital of the Danube Bulgaria Pliske. We shall remind that Byzantines named Rurik naval commander Lakapin, the derivative form from it Bulgarian name Lacyn.

In conformity with the data of the Russian chronicle [15, 22] Igor's first attack to Tsargrad is dated 920. Military expedition has come to the end with success – prince Igor have recognized as regent – emperor of New Rome and trustee Constantine Porphyrogennetos. Probably, at a christening Igor Roman has received a name. So, in 920 in Tsargrad emperor Roman I Lakapin has appeared. Russian prince was in capital arrivals, basically being engaged Ancient Russia in Kiev. Presence of friendly attitudes with Russ at Byzantines at that time speaks the fact of participation Vikings in destruction in 924 the chapter of pirates of Lion from Tripole about island Lemnos. To the beginning of 940th emperor Constantine Porphyrogennetos began to be weighed trusteeship of prince Igor, and the Greek elite of capital began make to a network of plots against Russian emperor.

Attack of prince Igor to Tsargrad.

Prince Igor had to begin military pressure upon New Rome in 941-942. It was carried out by a parcel numerous Vikings courts on the Black Sea coast of Black Sea and in water area of Marmara Sea. Long sea blockade of Constantinople could not be made without presence of base of Russian fleet in this region. Such base the city of Prusa, capital Bithynia which since III century was the property of the Sort of Russ – Flavius was. Commanders and admirals of Tsargrad on a regular basis tried to destroy small size court of Vikings, but it was possible to them with variable success. At last business has reached large-scale intrusion of Russia on territory of the Byzantium empire overland in 943 on what inform numerous chronicles.

Constantine Porphyrogennetos 's Greek party has managed to pay off from prince Igor who had father of wife to emperor. The peace outcome of opposition has led to Constantine's to individual authority in Tsargrad. The peace treaty in 944, provided domination Russian Vikings and merchants in trade with New Rome has been made. Emperor Roman Lakapin – prince Igor has left from has put and has returned to Russia where has been killed by Drevlyanian in 945. These data prove to be true Bulgarian sources [20]. Under the Byzantium version Roman Lakapin has been arrested on December 16, 944 and banished in 945 in a monastery on island Protia where has died ostensibly in 948. Two sons of the Igor-novel participated in plot on names Stephan and Constantine (or Christopher). They correspond Igor's to Russian sons is Svyatoslav and to Gleb. Probably, prince Igor and his sons Byzantines have compelled to return to Kiev voluntary.

7. The Caspian campaign in 943-945.

The next attack Russ on the Caspian region passed in parallel events in Byzantium. To military expedition preceded Russ-Khazarian collision to Black Sea Coast described in the so-called Cambridge document [41]. About 939 certain Russian governor H-l-g-w (Helgu, probably Oleg), bribed by Byzantium, has grasped Khazarian fort Samkerz, supervising Kerch strait. Khazarian commander Pesah has released city, then has caught up and has defeated Helgu. If to trust Khazarian to interpretation, Pesah has forced Russia to go war to Constantinople. Because of failure of it of 4 monthly campaigns (Russian fleet has been burnt by Greek fire) Helgu as if was ashamed to come back in the country and with a team has gone to Persia. This attack to Byzantium under the description coincides with Igor Rurikovich's unsuccessful campaign in 941. The question with whom it is necessary to identify Helgu (prince Igor, Oleg Moravsky or colonel Igor under name Oleg) is debatable.

The campaign in the near-Caspian states in 943/945, mentioned in the Cambridge document without date, is rather in detail stated to east authors on traces of fresh events. Arabian writer ibn Miskavejh (the beginning of XI century) defines date of a campaign in 943/944, and the Syrian historian of XIII century informed the Bar–Ebrey , that attack on Berdaa has taken place « in the same year when it was established Mustakfi, son Muktafi [caliph Abbasid dynasties] », that is in 944/945.

The basic purpose of a campaign Russ became the rich city of Berdaa, former capital of the Caucasian Albania, located on inflow of the Hen in territory of modern Azerbaijan and taking place under authority Daylamites dynasties. Came Russ across Kura on the part of Caspian Sea and there was them no more than 3 thousand person, according to historian X of century Movses Hagankatvaci [42]. Sources do not inform whence Russ came for the first time seen in those edges. Towards Russ to river Kura is small garrison Berdaa has left approximately 600 soldiers and hastily collected five-thousandth guards of local residents [43]:

« They were careless, did not know their force [Russ] and counted them flush with Armenians and Roman [Byzantines]. After they have begun battle, has not passed also to hour as Russ has gone on them breaking attack. The regular army, and after it all volunteers and other army, except for Daylamites has run »

Daylamites (300 person) battled persistently, but there was all murder except for few riding. Pursuing running inhabitants, Russ have rushed in Berdaa. As against former attacks on Caspian Sea, this time Russ did not begin to plunder city, and have declared local residents that guarantee safety and a freedom of worship if those will submit to them. Historians consider such actions as the certificate of intentions Russ to grasp the grounds for settlement in Berdaa with the subsequent creation of own specific state. Mixed on a nationality and creed the population has broken up. Traitors were found only among elite, the basic part of the city bottoms professing an Islam to submit has refused. Under the story ibn Miskavejh inhabitants aggressively concerned to aggressors, throwing in Russ stones when those beat off sorties of Muslim military groups from the neighboring grounds.

After a while Russ has ordered to inhabitants to leave city, having given on gathering 3 days. To leave the few which owned pack animals have managed and could take out wives and children. After expiry of the term Russ have arranged slaughter in city, having grasped thus of 10 thousand men and women and having driven them in a fortress. The Bar–Ebrey informs about 20 thousand lost inhabitants. It is to men has suggested redeeming itself for 20 dirham. It is interesting to note, that the same sum (20 gold coins) as the repayment for captured contains in the Russ-Byzantium contract in 912, made Prophetic Oleg [6].

The some people have agreed to find freedom thus. Russ, not paying attention to an arrangement, selected at the captive all property, and in exchange gave out « a piece of clay with a seal which was to it a guarantee from others » [43]. The majority has not agreed to the repayment (or had no means) and were murder, except for few, managed to escape on channel with water. Women and the young man Russ have left to itself for "debauch". In the meantime the governor of Azerbaijan and Arran Marzuban has collected army in 3 thousand fighters from which has risen to city. However, despite of superiority in strength, in all fights suffered defeat, has not resorted yet to military cunning. During night attack Marzuban has carried away behind itself pursuing Russ false deviation, yet has not guided those on an ambush. In that I fight was lost, according to itself Marzuban, 700 Russ together with their leader.

However soon Marzuban with an army has been compelled to leave to Syria where against him rebels have acted. For continuation attack Berdaa it has left 4 thousand soldiers.
The size of fighting losses Russ is unknown, ibn Miskavejh informs, that Moslems did not make on those « strong impression ». The present disaster for Russ became epidemic of gastric disease, probably dysentery as ibn Miskavejh connects illnesses and high death rate in base of Russ with a plenty of the fruits consumed Russ. Movses Hagankatvaci which probably witnesses attack informs on 6 months which have been lead Russ in Berdaa. The Arabian geographer of the beginning of XIII century the Yakut ibn Ablallah has mentioned stays Russ in Berdaa within a year. Once under a cover of night they have left city, having charged with all extraction what could carry away, on shoulders. With itself Russ has stolen a part of women and young men. Having reached the camp to Kura, Russ has sat down on the ships and has departure in the unknown person for observers a direction. It is necessary to note, that all sources Russ on Berdaa do not mention attack, that aggressors during this campaign grasped any other cities in region. Ibn Miskavejh has left valuable supervision over customs and customs Russ first half X century [43]:

« I heard from people, which witness these Russ, surprising stories about their bravery and about their scornful attitude to the Moslems collected against them.

One of these stories has been distributed in this district I heard from many, that five people Russ have gathered in one of gardens Berdaa; among them the young man, pure the person, the son of one of their chiefs, and with them some women – captives was without beard. Having learned about their presence, Moslems have surrounded a garden. The big number Daylamites and others has gathered to battle to these five people. They tried to receive even one captured of them, but there was no to it an approach for any of them did not surrender. And until then they could not be killed, yet have not killed in some times greater number of Moslems.

Without beard the young man was last, survived. When it has noticed, that will be taken in captivity, it has got on a tree which was close from him, and strike blows to itself the dagger in fatal places until has fallen dead »

The great poet Bottoms lived in Gandzha, near to Berdaa. In fantastic poem Iscander – name (about 1203) about acts Iscander (Alexander Great in the East) it has made a name Russ the strongest opponents Iscander [44]:

« Russ, greedy to fights, […] it was started up in the sea and on decks of the courts has made intrusion […] This people has devastated all territory Berdaa […] It something other, as the robbers similar to wolves and lions. They are never betraid amuse feasts […] they seize the countries and submit cities … »

Under the law of genre Iscander has crushed Russ and Burtasian, has taken prisoner Russian leader (Kiniaz of Russ), but has nobly released it in a native land to reign.

We believe that the poem Bottoms about itself describes events of military campaigns Russ, sent by Prophetic Oleg – emperor Lion Philosopher to Caspian Sea, in 909-913. Then Russ have been destroyed by armies of deputies Alexander Great, and it is possible also the commander. Actually we deal with episodes of civil war between Russian and Greek parties of Tsargrad.

And attempts to base Russ in these places the state we connect capture Berdaa with events in New Rome and echoes of events in 912-913 when emperors the Lion and Alexander have been poisoned. In fact Konstantin Bagrjanorodnyj was the son of the Lion – Oleg, and Russian party of Tsargrad wanted to restore the lost rights on southern Caspian Sea where there was an empire Alexander the Great.

Bulgarian chronicles contain echoes of events in Berdaa [20], volume I, page 81 and 85. In them it is spoken about fleet Russ and capture of near-Caspian cities. Besides according to the mentioned source, in 944 young bek (prince) Kubar, son Gali has grasped Itil and has put there the Hagan Uzbek. It is dating of event causes doubts in 944. We believe that it was in the beginning of 960th. In struggle Kubar used armies of prince Igor. We identify bek Kubar to young prince Vladimir who was grandson Igor and son of Gleb.

8. Campaigns in 960th to Khazaria.

Russia has for a long time remembered treachery Khazar which happened in beginning X of a century. In days of reigning Grand Duke Svyatoslav has come it is time to revenge Khazaria for the last insults. The independent board of prince began about 960. In 965 Svyatoslav attacked Khazaria [6]:

« To a year 6473 (965) has gone Svyatoslav on Khazar. Having heard, Khazarian have left towards to it with the prince Hagan, and were left to beat, and in fight has overcome Svyatoslav Khazar, and their capital and White Veja has taken. Also has won Yasovian and Kasogovian »

In the beginning of 960th Khazar tsar Joseph in the letter to dignitary Cordoba Caliphate Hasday ibn Shafrut has noted, that conducts with Russ « persistent war », not starting up them in the sea and overland to Derbent, differently they, as he said, could win all Islamic grounds up to Bagdad. Under the control Khazar there were also other key purposes of Russian expansion: Kerch strait and Don region. These circumstances have made inevitable open collision between two countries.

Vernadsky G.V. dates the first episode of war in 963 [46], specifying that then Svyatoslav has made a campaign on the south in area of Kuban and has entered in Tmutarakan. On the basis of the previous contract between Svyatoslav and Crimean peoples it should be recognized in Tmutarakan as Russian Hagan.

The contemporary of events Ibn Haukal carries a campaign Russian to later time. It informs in the records on war Russ also with Volga Bulgaria [47]:

« Bulgar – the city small, is not present in it numerous districts, and was known for that was port for the mentioned above states, both have devastated it Russ and have come on Khazar, Semender and Itil in a year 358 (968/969) and have gone immediately after to the country Rum and Andalus … And scarlet – Khazar – the party, and there is in it a city named Semender, and it in space between it and Women scarlet – Abvab, and there were in it numerous gardens …, but here came there Russ, and there was no in city a volume grapes, raisin »

Having crushed armies of both states and having ruined their cities, Svyatoslav has broken Yasov and Kasogov, has taken and has destroyed Semender in Dagestan. Under one version Svyatoslav in the beginning has taken the city of Sarkel on the river Don in 965, then has moved on the east, and in 968 or 969 has subdued Itil and Semender (both cities were at various times capitals Khazar Khaganate). Khazar the population in a panic has run up, having covered on islands of Caspian Sea. The imperial court yard has left capital. Result of a campaign became full route of Khazaria. M.I. Artamonov considered that Russian army moved downwards across Volga and capture Itil preceded captures Sarkel.

The image Byzantian horse army from John Skylitzis's annals.

Under 966, already after route Khazar, in « Stories of time years » [6] it is informed on a victory above Vyatichi and imposing on them to a tribute. The Byzantium chronicles store silence about events in Russia that period.

Prince Svyatoslav not only has broken Khazar Khaganate, but also tried to secure the won territories. On place Sarkel there is a Russian settlement White Veja, and princedom Tmutarakan passes under authority of Kiev. There are data that Russian groups were in Itil and Semender till 990th though their status is not clear. On Taman, Tmutarakan princedom has existed prior to the beginning of XII century. It is considered, that the board Khazar on Volga has been restored in 970th with the help of Shirvan and Khoresm by refusal Khazarian elite from Judaism for the benefit of an Islam. In 985 Grand Duke Vladimir has made a campaign to Khazaria and has imposed on it a tribute. Soon after that Khazaria has stopped the existence as the state.

The interesting information about Khazar campaigns Svyatoslav contains in Bulgarian chronicles [20], volume I, page 96:

« Suddenly on this way there was a strong obstacle in the person immensely vain uruss ulubij - son Ugyr Lachyn [Igor Rurikovich] Barys [Svyatoslav]. This governor has collected under the banners of 20 thousand Sadumian and 50 thousand Balynian, keen on his intention to take and clean to plunder Bulgar and Khazaria, and in 964 has taken with them Djir »

« … the Talib … ordered to go him to Barys with the offer on a joint gain of Khazaria in exchange for Djir, Caen and western part of Kordjak. Barys, having heard it from them, has not believed the ears and has personally arrived in Bulgar behind acknowledgement of this offer. Uruss have appeared before Bulgar during that moment when Mohammed feasted in Halj. Having seen Sadumian, Han in a panic has run together with all retinue. They have taken breath only in Nur-Suvar, and left by them on fire marching boilers have got Uruss, and they with pleasure had a snack from road. In a heat of a feast the Talib has appeared and has agreed with Barys upon negotiations on Idel island "Beer" opposite Bulgar. To this island from one edge, on superficial water, it was possible to approach on a horse, and from another – to swim up by the ship...

Emir has told that in exchange for participation Barys in war against Khazaria Bulgar will concede to Russia Djir, Caen and Western Kordjak for an annual tribute at a rate of a tribute with Djir. And it is the huge territory made between the Kara – Idel and Sain – Idel (Aka), except for its east part – areas Lokyr between the river Lokyr running in Gul-Asmu, Aka and a Kara – Idel, stayed for Bulgar. The Talib has suggested speaking about section of Khazaria already after its route. Barys with pleasure has agreed, and promised to begin war by an attack on Hin... Transfer of Caen to Barys the Talib, in addition, wanted still enmity excessively amplified son Ugyra with Batyshian. Also it is to emir it was possible.

On return way Barys has beaten out son Haddad Alyp from Caen. In the answer that has sent it the letter in which informed: “Batyshian count people formed owing to mixture Ulchian and Murdasian. Actually Batyshian are descendants Murdasian and Sadumian a tribe Hudian, once owning Russ. Therefore it, Alyp, has more than the rights to be ulubij of Russ, than Barys, and will try to carry out as required them ”... »

Further, page 97:

« In the summer 965, Barys attacked Hin, having floated to it from Bashtu [Kiev] on Bury– Chai [Dnepr], I exhaust Saklansk [Black sea] and Shir to [Don]. Hardly would it manage to take this strong city if Rumci [Roman] have not helped it soldiers and wall crashed techniques. When walls Cinchona have been punched in two or three places, Sadumian and Galijian have rushed into city and have made there usual slaughter for them. Pleased with victory Barys ordered to tell to the ambassadors to the Talib that will win Khazaria itself, and the Talib promised to not prevent it. Kubar, having learned about it, has immediately rushed to Cinchona from Itil. While it tried to beat out Uruss, Kukcha with Daud and Michael have turned into flight Turkmen Khazar bek and have besieged Itil. The appeal Bulgarian Han to Itilian about resettlement in Bulgar with the purpose of rescue of from inevitable Balynian intrusions … has favorably been met by the majority Itilian. Not delaying, the best owners Khazarian capitals have gone in Bulgar under protection kursybai. The rest in Itil the Uzbek and connected with it Khazarian and Turkmen have not dared to prevent resettlement and in horror before Kukcha were locked in a citadel of city. Itilian also were settled in Bandja and Bulyar, and one of baliks Bulyar has received even name Itil... »

It turns out, that Roman have supplied armies Svyatoslav with modern techniques – wall crashed machines and the trained soldiers.

Further, page 98:

« In the summer 966 Barys again has gone from Cinchona on Itil and this time has broken to Khazar capital. At his approach few inhabitants remaining there ran together with the Uzbek and Kubar by the ships to Khurasan through Menkyshlak and have located, eventually, in Bukhara …

Barys has found in Itil only garrison Kubar which has thoughtlessly surrendered. Ulubiy, not find in city of any extraction, has come to indescribable fury and cut all captured. Then Barys has decided to revenge Burdjanian for an attack and person has gone by the ships to Semender with 20 thousand, and 30 thousand soldiers has directed on Khazarian Burtasian and Batyshian. Semender has been crushed Balynian [Russ] up to the basis … »

Further, page 99;

« In Khazaria Uruss almost has got nothing, and Burdjanian extraction has gone in payment for Roman the help. But it has not extinguished also a centesimal Roman debt Barys. Roman, having heard about difficulties Ulubiy and not hoping for return of the money, have decided to receive from Uruss though the military help and have offered Barys additional money in exchange for his joint with Rome an attack on Ulak-Bulgar and, having received from Rome necessary money, has there and then paid off with them with the Talib and has received Caen again. Ulubiy expected quickly to finish with Ulak-Bulgar, but get down in this war. In 969 when it became clear, that Barys has lost for all business in Ulak-Bulgar, the Talib has entered into Khazaria Bulgarian armies – kursybai and Turkmen Michael. Employment of Khazaria has passed without obstacles, short of unexpected skirmish in Itil. The originator of her appeared irrepressible Kubar, had time to come from Menkyshlak with group of Horezmian and to borrow Itil. Right at the beginning of skirmish people Kubar have shot Michael, easy driving in city. Angry with it Turkmen cut all Horezmian … »

«With connection of Khazaria the state Bulgaria has turned to the present power, and our governors began to name themselves sovereigns Great Bulgaria... From that time we began to name the Kara – Saklan of steppe between Sula and Bury-Chai [Dnepr] is expected, and Ak-Saklan – steppe between Dnepr is expected and Bulgaria by border...

At that time Badjanakian a Kara – Saklan, being in the close union with Ulak-Bulgar, began to be oppressed Barys and is compelled were united under the direction of khan Kura for repulse to feeble efforts Balynian. In 969 Kura - khan has made attack on Bashtu and has plundered it around town, and in 972 has trapped coming back of Ulak-Bulgar Barys and has finished with it»

Thus, route Khazar Khaganate in 960th has taken place due to creation of the military union between Russ, the Volga Bulgaria and New Rome. And the Byzantium empire represented itself as close ally Svyatoslav, having supplied with his huge means on those times, armies and special technics for storm of cities and fortresses. The capital Hazar Khaganate the city of Itil has been handed over without fight bek Kubar which after these events has disappeared from Khazaria. On our reconstruction of a history prince Kubar has easy returned to the patrimonial jack to the Top Volga region in Pereyaslavl princedom under a name Vladimir. His fortress Kubar on the river Kubra (now there village of Pustyn) near to lake Pleshcheevo, that absolutely near to Moscow – 110 km from city there settled down.

Territory of Khazar Khaganate has departed to the Volga Bulgaria and the elite of Khaganate have accepted an Islam, having kept the riches and originality. Therefore the opinion of traditional historians above mentioned, that Khazarian Shirvan and Horesm – error have helped to restore authority. Numerous data on war Russ with Khazarian contain in chronicles Ibn Haukal « the Book of pictures of the ground », Al Mukaddasi, Ibn Miskavejh, Ibn Al Asir, Djagfar Taryhi and STY.

Military and economic support Svyatoslav and Russ on the part of New Rome does not cause surprise. In fact before Igor Rurikovich – Roman's I Lakapin removal of his children – Svyatoslav and Gleb (Stephan and Christopher in the Byzantium sources) from New Rome in 945, all of them were considered as co-emperors. Besides all X century in Tsargrad rules the Macedonian dynasty being is related branch of a sort of Russ – Flavius. Therefore between Russia and Byzantium some centuries were supported the close political and dynastic communications, interrupted by regular wars at the moment of an aggravation of struggle for authority of Russian and Greek parties of New Rome

9. The Russ-Byzantium war in 970-971.

From a traditional history it is known about military expeditions of the Kiev Grand duke Svatoslav to the Balkans in 968-971 during which Russ opposed Danube Bulgaria on money of Byzantines, and then joint armies Bulgaria and Russ were at war against Byzantium about 970.

In general events developed as follows. In 967 or 968 Svyatoslav, received as payment about 455 kg of gold from Tsargrad, has made attack on the Bulgarian empire, but has soon returned to Kiev besieged Pechenegian. After death of mother, princess Olga, Svyatoslav in 969 has again gone to the Balkans where has subordinated to itself east part of the Bulgarian empire weakened by internal split, and in 970 has attacked possession of the Byzantium empire in Thrace. In 970-971 the Byzantium emperor John [Ioannis] Tzimiskes waged war against the incorporated Bulgarian-Russian army, having forced in result Svyatoslav to deviation from Bulgaria. At returning to Russia prince Svyatoslav was lost in the spring 972 in fight with Pechenegian, and east part of the Bulgarian empire has been attached to possession of Byzantium.

About military actions the Russia given in chronicles and Byzantium was kept many.

The beginning of the Bulgarian-Byzantium conflict resulted in campaign Svyatoslav to Bulgaria, concerns to June 967. Ioannis Skylitzis so describes events [48]. This month the Byzantium emperor Nikephoros Phokas, making inspection trip to Thrace, has demanded from the Bulgarian tsar Peter to forbid to Hungarians to be forwarded through Danube with the purpose of attacks on the Byzantium provinces. When Peter has evaded from struggle against the strong opponent, the Byzantium diplomacy has decided to punish Bulgar, having directed on them Russ:

« Then Nikephoros has honored by advantage patricians Kalokir, the son Kherson protevon, and has sent it to the governor of Russia Svendoslav that promises of gifts and considerable honors to decline it to an attack on Bulgarian. Dews obeyed; on the fifth year of reign Nikephoros in August 11 Indict [968] they have attacked Bulgaria, have ruined many cities and villages Bulgar, have grasped plentiful extraction and have come back to itself »

Gain prince Svyatoslav of the Danube Bulgaria.

It agrees Skylitzis in 969 Russ have returned to Bulgaria and have subdued her already for itself, having broken thus the agreement with emperor Nikephoros. Byzantium reporter Constantine Manassia briefly informs XII centuries on these events [49]:

« At this tsar Nikephoros have won Russ the Bulgarian ground. Twice for two years tsar Nikephoros directed Svyatoslav on Bulgaria...

After capture Preslav prince Russ Svyatoslav has won the Bulgarian ground, has subordinated to itself and villages in Dorostol. Has come there Tzimiskes with the big host, has won it, and itself has released out. But Svyatoslav has reached the grounds Pechenegian and there has been killed together with the soldiers »

Constantinople the historian Lion Deacon, the contemporary of events, transfers the beginning of the conflict differently. According to his version in the winter 966/967 to emperor Nikephoros was the Bulgarian embassy with the requirement of a usual tribute. Indignant Nikephoros which before that has lead some victorious military campaigns in Asia, itself has gone with an army to Bulgaria, but has stopped on its borders, being afraid to go deep into a hilly terrain where Bulgaria before not time was rendered with heavy defeats to Byzantines. Nikephoros has withdrawn an army, and then [50]:

« Having erected in advantage patricians Kalokir, the husband of ardent customs and in every respect hot, it has sent it to Tavro-Scythians which in popular speech usually name dews, with an order to distribute between them gold handed it, quantity about fifteen kentinaries [455 kg], and to result them in Meseia [Bulgaria] so that they have grasped this country »

Then Lion Deacon lowers first campaign Svyatoslav on Bulgaria and at once begins the description of events with the second campaign, indirectly dating it 969. With an army in 60 thousand soldiers Svyatoslav on boats across Danube has approached to Dorostol where Bulgarian have exposed against him 30 thousand fighters, but after battle have been rejected in a fortress.
The attack Russ on Bulgaria has strongly disturbed Byzantium. Emperor Nikephoros began to strengthen defense of Constantinople, to prepare for army. Also it has decided to enter the union with Bulgarian by means of a dynastic marriage. Bulgarian, asking to help to them against Russ, in the autumn 969 has sent brides of imperial blood whom Nikephoros was going to marry to sons of emperor Roman II, Basil and Constantine. Plans of joint repulse Svyatoslav could not come true because of murder on December 11, 969 of emperor Nikephoros. The throne of the Byzantium empire was borrowed with military leader John Tzimiskes who did not belong to the Macedonian dynasty of Russia.

While Byzantines changed in rendering the direct military help Bulgaria, to their constant enemy, east part of Bulgaria was won by Svyatoslav. Not quite clearly, on what conditions there was a submission Bulgaria. On the one hand, Bulgarian the next year fought together with Russ against Byzantines, and new Bulgarian tsar Boris II remained in the capital Preslav. On the other hand, Lion Deacon informs on terror Svyatoslav in Bulgaria [50]:

« Speak, that with fight having taken Philippople, it with brutal ferocity peculiar to it has planted on steak twenty thousand inhabitants who have stayed in city and by that has restrained and [has bridled] any resistance and has provided humility »

Though historians doubt among victims in Philippople, the city under certificate Skylitzis has become deserted. The Russian annals [6] informs echoes of the Balkan war:

« Also has gone Svyatoslav to capital, being at war and breaking cities that cost and hitherto are empty »

Nevertheless, STY [6] in the statement it is close to Skylitzis:

« In a year 6475 (967). Has gone Svyatoslav to Danube on Bulgaria. Both parties also fought, and have overcome Svyatoslav Bulgaria, and have taken cities of them 80 across Danube, and villages to reign there in Pereyaslavec, take a tribute from Greeks.
In a year 6476 (968). Came for the first time Pechenegian on Russian ground and Svyatoslav was then in Pereyaslavec … »

While Russian was at war on Danube, Pechenegian have besieged Kiev, therefore Svyatoslav with a team urgently on horses has returned to Russia. Bulgarian sources [20], volume I, page 99 inform on an attack to Kiev in 969 of khan Kura which was in the union with Danube Bulgaria. Bulgarian named Pechenegian is Badjanian. Having rejected Pechenegian, Svyatoslav wanted to return in Pereyaslavec, but it was kept by mother princess Olga. After death in July of Olga, actually ruled in Russia, Svyatoslav management of the grounds was necessary to equip 969. Within 970 it has placed sons with colonels on destinies and in 971, according to chronology of the annals [6], has gone again in grown fond to it Pereyaslavec which has taken from Bulgaria an attack. After that Svyatoslav has led an army on Greeks.

The annalistic city of Pereyaslavec on Danube precisely is not identified. There are two basic versions and others, less widespread. On the first Russian reporter has named so Preslav Great, capital of the Bulgarian empire. Erroneous localization Preslav Great on Danube could be added as the regional attribute distinguishing Pereyaslavec from Pereyaslavl in Russia. Under the second version – Pereyaslavec reporter named Preslav Small, trading river port which is taking place approximately in the middle between Dorostol and a mouth of Danube.

In 970 emperor John Tzimiskes has tried to pay off from Svyatoslav, however Russian prince has not wished to refuse the seized extraction. On threats Tzimiskes Svyatoslav has given such answer (in literary processing Lion Deacon) [50]:

« I do not see any necessity for emperor Roman to hasten to us; let it does not exhaust the forces on travel in now the country - we shall break soon the tents at a gate Byzantium and we shall erect around of city strong barriers and if it will leave to us if will dare to resist to such trouble, we shall bravely meet it and we shall show it in practice, that not any handicraftsmen obtaining means by a life by works of the hands, and men to blood which the weapon win the enemy. Vainly it on unreasonably to the accepts Russ for the coddled women and trying to intimidate us similar threats, as chest babies, which panic every ones frightened »

Tzimiskes had in the European part of empire basically the territorial armies typed from local peasants. It is them Svyatoslav contemptuously calls « any handicraftsmen ». Successful campaign in Syria has allowed throwing the case under command patrician Peter from the East. The general command by the armies directed against Svyatoslav, was entrusted to the relative of emperor Bardas Skleros. In the winter 969/970 the Byzantium army was placed in boundary provinces with Bulgaria. Scouts have been sent to the areas borrowed Russian, for gathering the information on intentions of the opponent.

In the spring 970 the allied army divided into 3 parts, has intruded limits of the Byzantium Thrace. Panic moods during this period soared in Constantinople. Under message Skylitzis Russ operated together with Bulgarian, and their allies Hungarians and Pechenegian acted separately. Number of enemies Deacon estimates in more than 30 thousand soldiers [50] while Bardas Skleros soldier had near at hand from 10 up to 12 thousand. Army of Svyatoslav has reached up to Arcadiople, that in 120 km from Constantinople where there was a decisive battle. Bardas Skleros has sent towards to "Scythians" at the Byzantium authors John Alakas's small group, other forces secretly has placed in an ambush, having broken on two parts. Group of Alakas has come across on Pechenegian and has carried away them in deviation behind itself, directing on an ambush. The plan of Byzantines has gone right, Pechenegian appeared in a full environment and by words Skylitzis there was almost all murder.

Then this very day there was a persistent battle with army Svyatoslav which result was defined with destruction of one of leaders of "Scythians". Bardas Skleros has personally split it up to a belt then "Scythians" have taken to flight. Lion Deacon informs a result of battle [50]:

« Speak, that in this fight it has been killed fifty five Roman, it was much wounded and has even more fallen horses, and Scythians was lost more than twenty thousand »

Despite of full route of a "Scythian" army (according to the Byzantium authors), war has not come to the end. In Asia Minor revolt Bardas Phakas against which emperor has sent army Bardas Skleros has flashed. It agrees Deacon Scythians and is farther « made sudden attacks, ruthlessly ruined and devastated Macedonia, causing thus Roman huge harm ».

Thus, army Svyatoslav within 970 remained in Bulgaria, and his leaving from the Byzantium Thrace could be connected not so much to defeat under Arcadiople, how many with the circumstances stated in the Old Russian annals [6].

STY states campaign Svyatoslav in the form of the heroic bylina, not mentioning about defeat Russ in any of battles. However some details of a narration specify a reality of annalistic data which on political reasons could be ignored in the Byzantium official documents. In the beginning Byzantines have offered tribute Svyatoslav on number of soldiers. Prince though had 10 thousand fighters, has named number in 20 thousand. Greeks have refused to pay, instead of it having exposed an army in 100 thousand people. When armies were left, Svyatoslav to encourage the soldiers has addressed to them with the well-known words [6]:

« We have no place to get to already we want or we do not want – should battle. So not get down the grounds Russian, but we shall lay here bonds for dead we do not conduct a shame. If we shall run - the shame to us will be. So we shall not run, but we begin strong, and I shall go ahead of you: if my head will lie, of the take care »

Russian army has overcome Greeks and has moved in the direction of Constantinople. When Svyatoslav was already near to capital, the Byzantium emperor has agreed to a tribute which the Kiev prince has taken and on victims. After that Svyatoslav has returned to the city of Pereyaslavec.

Probably, that all Byzantium sources constantly lie and deform events to please to greatness of Roman empire. Frequency of "defeats" Russ in wars against New Rome amazes if to read imperial chronicles. It speaks that just Russ the greatest troubles and economic damage delivered to Romans.

Wars with Russ were prevented by civil conflicts in the empire. For example, professional armies distracted on suppression of mutiny Bardas Phakas in Asia Minor. In November 970 army of Bardas Skleros was forwarded back to Macedonia and Thrace where has settled down on winter apartments. Preparing a campaign on Svyatoslav, John Tzimiskes has ordered to take a lot of bread and other supplies to Adrianople (Edirne), and also to equip fleet from 300 ships.

In April 971 emperor Tzimiskes has personally headed a campaign to Bulgaria. The fleet blocked Danube the overland army about April, 10 has free passed through mountain passes and has left to the Bulgarian capital Preslavu. Lion Deacon names forces Tzimiskes in 15 thousand hoplites and 13 thousand horsemen besides the large perfect group "immortal" was, it is completely chained in an armory horses, and the big transport with the other army. Skylitzis informs, that Tzimiskes person of infantry and 4 thousand horsemen has grasped passes with group in 5 thousand, and it was followed with other set of soldiers.

On April 12, 971 Greeks attacked Preslav where were the Bulgarian tsar Boris II and Russian colonel Sfenkel (Sveneld). At this time Svyatoslav was to the north in Dorostol on Danube. Despite of the factor of unexpectedness, Russ (Tavro-Scythians) had time to be built in the fighting order, having covered with the big boards to toe, and have rushed on Greeks. Fight was persistent without a clear advantage of the parties while emperor has not ordered to guards "immortal" to attack the left flank Russ. Not having sustained a pressure reserved horses, Russ have departed in a fortress. Skylitzis estimates an aggregate number Russ in 8500 soldiers, and Lion Deacon in the same number estimates their losses in it to fight.

Next day to Greeks have tightened obsidional instruments, and they have gone on attack Preslav. On archeological excavations the height of walls of a fortress made about 3.5 m, thickness exceeded 2 m. Soon Byzantines have rushed into city, and Russ has receded in an imperial palace with fencing. The Bulgarian tsar Boris whom emperor Tzimiskes has accepted with appropriate honor has been seized.

Having lost at storm is of an imperial palace up to 150 soldiers, than Greeks burn up it smoking stay there Russ number up to 7-8 thousand person. Figures of losses of Byzantines and Russ cause a smile the bias.

Russian has been ostensibly compelled to leave on an open place where Greeks have surrounded them and almost all have replaced. However colonel Sfenkel with few soldiers has managed to leave to Svyatoslav. Under message Deacon:

« In this fight the set Misian [Bulgar], enemies battling on the party against Roman was lost also ».

After celebrating Easter the Byzantium army has moved on Dorostol, the basic city of Svyatoslav in Bulgaria. On road of city Bulgaria either has voluntary obeyed Greeks, or was given on plunder. Svyatoslav, according to the Byzantium authors, tried to suppress about the Roman moods among Bulgarian terror [50]:

« Having understood on mature reflection, that if Misian keep to Roman, affairs of it will end badly, it has called about three hundred the most well-born and influential of their number and with brutal wildness has finished with them - it has decapitated all of them, and many others has concluded in fetters and has flung in prison »

Skylitzis in the story about execution 300 Bulgarian has noticed that those were « under suspicion ». Lion Deacon has estimated force Svyatoslav in 60 thousand soldiers Skylitzis person has traditionally exaggerated them up to 330 thousand. Armies of opponents were left on a field in 12 km from Dorostol.
Battle has taken place on April 23, 971. A disposition of armies has described Deacon [50]:

« Tavro-Scythians have densely closed boards and spears, having given to the numbers a kind of a wall, and expected the opponent on a battle-field. Emperor has built against them Roman, having arranged horsemen dressed in armors on each side, and bow and sling behind, and, having ordered to them is unceasing to shoot, has led a phalanx in fight »

Fight with variable success last till the evening while to a sunset Russ has not receded in Dorostol. Next day Greeks have broken strong camp near walls Dorostol. So the obsidional war which has been stretched for 3 months began. Dorostol represented a strong fortress on the right to coast of Danube which Greeks did not risk to storm, but only subjected to bombardment from stones throw instruments.

Byzantines storm Preslav, defended by prince Svyatoslav in 971.

In course storm Russ frequently made sorties against Greeks, in skirmishes dead as notable Byzantium military leaders, as, for example, John Kurkuas, hero even at route of fleet of prince Igor in 941, and leaders Russ – Ikmor and Sfenkel. Last statement is doubtful, in fact Sveneld will result armies Russ to Kiev in 972 with rich trophies. In 20 dates of June is 2 thousand Russ have made successful night spot-check on boats behind the foodstuffs, having plundered a transport of the Byzantium army.

Skylitzis [48] has noticed:

« Removing armor from killed barbarians, Roman found between them dead women in menswear which battled together with men against Roman »

John Tzimiskes has not been interested in long attack and so already in his absence in Constantinople there was unsuccessful attempt of revolution. To speed up business, it, by words Skylitzis [48], has suggested Svyatoslav to solve war by a duel between them:

« That has not accepted a call and has added humiliating words that it supposedly better the enemy understands the advantage and if emperor does not wish to live more, that is tens thousand other ways to death; let it also will select, what will want »

On July 21, 971 there was last battle which has ostensibly terminated without results, but has declined Svyatoslav to the conclusion of the world. In fight Svyatoslav was wounded, however and Greeks have stood under the Byzantium official version only due to the help over great martyr Theodora Stratilat and to strong hurricane, drop a dust directly to face to "Scythians".

Deacon so has presented result of battle [50]:

« Speak that in this fight fall down fifteen thousand five hundred Scythians, [on a field of battle] have picked up twenty thousand boards and many swords. Among Roman killed was three hundred fifty »

Again we notice surprising military abilities Roman – on 15500 people Russ were lost 350 people Roman and it was considered as equal fight.

Next day Svyatoslav has sent to emperor of ambassadors with the offer of the world.

The conditions offered by Russian prince, consist in the following: Russ leave Bulgaria home, and Greeks provide with him freedom of an output and supply with bread on a long journey. Besides trade relations with Byzantium are restored. Emperor has accepted all conditions then the agreement which text was kept in STY [6] has been made:

« The list from the contract made at Svyatoslav, Grand Duke Russian, and at Sveneld, write at Theophilos Sinkel to John named Tzimiskes, I reign Greek, in Dorostol, month of July 14 Indict, in year 6479. I, Svyatoslav, prince Russian, both swore, and I confirm with the contract it an oath my: I want together with all citizens to me Russian, with boyars and other to have the world and true love with all great tsars Greek, with Basil both with Constantine, and with God inspired tsars, and with all your people up to the end of the world. Also I shall never plan on your country, and I shall not collect on it soldiers, and I shall not guide other people on your country, that is under authority Greek, on the country Korsun and all cities local, on the country Bulgarian. And if who will plan other against your country I to it shall be the opponent and I shall be at war with it. As I already swore to the Greek tsars and with me boyars and all Russian, yes we constant shall observe the contract. If we shall not observe something from told earlier, let I and those who with me and under me, we shall be damned from the god in whom we believe, - in Perun and in Veles, the god of cattle, and yes we shall be yellow, as gold, and the weapon murder we shall be. Do not doubt of the truth of that we promised you nowadays, and have written in this charter and have fastened the seals »

Under the Byzantium data bread (on 20 kg) has received 22 thousand Russian soldiers. The attention affinity of this figure to those 20 thousand people under the Russian annals which Svyatoslav has named on inquiry of Greeks though really prince had 10 thousand pays to itself. Satisfying the treaty provision, Svyatoslav has given out captured and has gone to Russia.

With the termination of the Russ-Byzantium war northeast Bulgaria has been attached to Byzantium, independence was kept with only Bulgarian grounds in the West. The Bulgarian tsar Boris II has been deprived an imperial title, becoming the Byzantium grandee. Svyatoslav with a small team on ships has gone to Kiev, but Dnepr’s thresholds have borrowed Pechenegian, warned under versions STY [6] Bulgarian. Prince has remained to winter in a mouth of Dnepr, and in the spring 972 has made one more attempt to pass thresholds. Consequences are briefly stated in STY:

« Also has attacked him Kura, prince Pechenegian, both have killed Svyatoslav, and have taken a head of it, and have made a bowl of a skull, having fettered it, and drank from him »

Bulgarian the annals [20], volume I, page 99 so tells about death Svyatoslav:

« Kura – khan has told tebir Masgut, and that, in turn – to father Mamli that captivated Bardjanakian Barys [Svyatoslav] began to ask about mercy. On it Kura – khan has told to it: « your head let and with Hin slanting, will not add to me riches, and I willingly would spare you a life if you really valued her. But you have estimated her below [several measures] honey – payments for safe travel through my possession so let your head will serve as a bowl for this drink for edification of all excessively proud and thoughtless ». From a skull ill-starred Barys khan really ordered to make a bowl and saws of it ball »

Skylitzis confirms destruction Svyatoslav, but notices that Pechenegian Byzantines have warned. On Skylitzis Greeks have sent embassy to Pechenegian with the request to pass Russ home, however those have refused. The most part of Russian army has returned to Kiev in the overland way under supervision of colonel Sveneld.

There are some more inconsistent descriptions of events of campaigns Svyatoslav. Armenian reporter the beginnings of XI century Stepanos Asohik informs, that Bulgarian have acted against John Tsimiskes in the union with Russ. Asohik has reduced all war to unique battle in 971 year about which it has told so [51]:

« When fight was fastened, Ruzy [Russ] have turned into flight both wings of the Greek army. Tsar with all Armenian infantry remained motionless in the middle of front. The group of infantry named group Salarian of [military leaders], rendered miracles of bravery. It has cut [enemy numbers], facing face to face with tsar and gone against him under covering of the boards and, having given work to a sword, it has put many on a place, and the others has dispersed in the different parties; also has forced Bulgarian people to obey »

Some additional data are stated to V.N.Tatischev on so-called Joachim annals which authenticity is put under doubt, and to other sources, staying unknown persons. In Tatischev Svyatoslav's statement, leaving Bulgaria in 968/969 has left garrison in Pereyaslavec. Bulgarian has risen against Russ, having compelled Russian colonel the Volk to recede on ships across Danube. The wolf has met on Dnestr Svyatoslav which came back to Bulgaria with an army from the relative, the Hungarian prince [52]. After capture Pereyaslavec Svyatoslav has counted Byzantium guilty of revolt Bulgarian and has declared to it war. To justify defeat, Svyatoslav has accused the Christians, being in his army, in anger of pagan gods and even executed unique brother Gleb. On Joachim annals Svyatoslav has decided to return to Kiev with the purpose to punish Christians, but was lost on thresholds.

Let's sum up this war. On the Byzantium data Grand Duke Svyatoslav has lost killed 44 thousand person, and Romans only 555 soldiers. Under Russian chronicles at Svyatoslav were all 10 thousand fighters. Probably, artful Byzantines counted losses of soldiers on knights, without consideration the lost commoners. Everyone can draw the conclusions from this statistics. At first sight it seems, that all is war, open by Grand Duke Svyatoslav, looks full nonsense. This approach is reflected in comments of traditional historians which protect Christian empire of New Rome and will wear attacks of the barbarians – Russ united with Hungarians, Pechenegian and Bulgarian against nice Roman.

Let's consider our alternative version of events of the Russ-Byzantium war in 969-971. In 969 emperor of New Rome becomes John I Tzimiskes, a surname of emperor Kurkuas. It has become famous even in fights with prince Igor in 940th. On a throne of empire John gets by realization of plot against emperor Nikephoros II Phakas. It appears that in 968 emperor Nikephoros has paid to prince Svyatoslav for war with Danube Bulgarian. Emperor has transferred the chapter of embassy Kalokir, sent to Russia, 15 kentaries gold (a comment of 455 kg) to direct Russ to attack to Bulgaria.

In December 969 Nikephoros have been killed in own palace by John Tsimiskes who has been secretly entered into an imperial bedroom with the consent of tsarina Theophanous. Under the certificate of Lion Deacon [50]:

« Conspirators have rushed into bedroom Nikephoros, began to beat it and to kick with legs, and one of them has put strong impact by a sword on a head. Pour blood of emperor have dragged up to John. That having seized unfortunate for a beard, ruthlessly tormented her, and the others beat his handles of swords on cheeks and murder to it all teeth. At last, having been satiated with tortures, John has pushed Nikephoros with a leg in a breast, has waved a sword and get down to it in two a skull. After that it has chopped off head and corpse has thrown out on street. All the day it rolled on a snow open-air. In the evening remains Phakas have lie in hastily hammered together box, have attributed in a temple of Sacred Apostles and there have buried ».

The board of young emperors Basil and Constantine from the Macedonian dynasty of Russia has been put under threat. Russia has immediately reacted to a call. Grand Duke Svyatoslav has collected an allied army Russ, Bulgarian, Hungarians and Pechenegian and has intruded to the Balkans with the purpose to attack Constantinople.

Traditional historians assert, that against allied armies the army of emperor John Tsimiskes which has won barbarians by military successes and the conclusion of the victorious contract has been sent, look above. However in the Agreement in 971 Grand Duke Svyatoslav swears love and eternal friendship to emperors Basil and Constantine, and at all John Tsimiskes. It turns out, what John was not in alive at the moment of signing the document, otherwise, why it has not been mentioned in the Russ-Byzantium Agreements?

By words Skylitzis emperor John Tzimiskes has offered prince Svyatoslav a duel, but Russian prince has rejected the offer.

Further, the same Skylitzis informs [48], page 130:

«... Inside city of Scythians tormented famine, outside they suffered a loss from wall crashed instruments, is especial in that place where protection was born by Master John, son Roman Kurkuas; taking place there thrower of stones caused them considerable harm. Having allocated the bravest soldiers having heavy arms, and having mixed them with easily armed, [Scythians] send them against the specified instrument that they have tried to destroy it. Having found out it, Kurkuas in the chapter of the strongest soldiers has hastened on protection of [instruments].

Appearing in the middle of Scythians, it has fallen together with horse that was wounded with a spear, and lost, chopped up on a part. Appeared in time Roman have attacked on Russ, have defended instruments in integrity and have pushed aside Scythians in city »

On July 21, 971 there was last battle after which Grand duke Svyatoslav has signed the peace treaty with Byzantium. The resulted citation speaks what on July 21, 971 have been killed emperor John Tzimiskes, defense wall crashed machines. Power the conspirator it was prolonged half-year. In the annals it refers to John, son Roman Kurkuas, the master. A title the master meant a title of tsar of the Byzantium Empire. The emperor – impostor who has killed lawful emperor Nikephorosa turns out, that, was lost, chopped up on a part Russ. This event also became the reason of the termination of war of Russia and Byzantium as young emperors of the Macedonian dynasty Basil and Constantine were released from terrible regent.

Emperor Basil II.

Thus, last company of prince Svyatoslav has come to the end with full military and political success. The emperor - impostor from the Greek party John Tzimiskes has been killed Russ in battle for Dorostol. Russia has signed the peace agreement only with politically independent relatives from the Macedonian dynasty of Russia emperors Basil and Constantine, soldiers have received bread and monetary indemnification for a victory of Russian party of Tsargrad, and war has ended with love reconciliation of Russia and Russian Byzantium.

However last artful impact was put with the Greek party of the Tsargrad which has informed Pechenegian about returning of prince Svyatoslav through Dnepr’s thresholds by the ships. The great soldier and the commander, winner Hazars Khaganat and the Byzantium empire has been killed by enemies – Pechenegian because of the outstanding several measures of honey.

As the final note it would be desirable to note, that the western historians treat the conclusion of peace treaties of Byzantium with Russia as the certificate of charity from the party Roman. For comparison we can present ourselves the peace treaty of the USSR with the defeated Germany when the USSR concludes the world on which pays to Germany the huge contribution as an apology for the damage put by war.

10. The Caspian campaign in 987.

After route Khazar Khaganate, the elite of the Caspian region began to take into account opportunities Russian Vikings and princes, in carrying out of the local policy. It has been caused by occurrence on Taman the Tmutarakansky princedoms and constant military presence Russ on Northern Caucasus. So, in 987 behind the help to Russ emir of Derbent Maymun ben Ahmad who to know has addressed has taken under the guard in his own residence. The author does not inform The History of Shirvan, whence came Russ to the aid of Emir [60].

Phanagoria, Bosporus empire, Tmutarakanskoe princedom.

Data of Old Armenian allows to assume historians that speech can go about the Byzantium mercenaries in Transcaucasia. So Armenian historian Stefan from Taron, the contemporary of prince Vladimir, tells about quarrel because of an armful of hay in camp of the Byzantium army (Armenia, 1000) between Russ and Iberian (Georgians) [61]:

« Then all people Ruz [Russ], former there has risen on fight; them was 6000 person – the pedestrian, armed spears and boards, – of which were asked by tsar Basil tsar Ruz when it has given out the sister in marriage for the last. In this it is a high time Ruz have believed in the Christ »

So, 18 Russian ships came to the city of Derbent. The crew of one ship has landed and has gone to release emir. The governor has been rescued, but local residents have killed Russ. Then other ships Russ have plundered district Muscat (modern Mushkur, it is a little to the south of Derbent), and then have left to Shirvan (the near-Caspian state in the north of Azerbaijan).

Maymun Ben Ahmad has continued struggle against elite, having taken on service Russian Vikings. In 989 Gilyan preacher Musa At-Tuzi has accused emir of the behavior unworthy the Islamic governor, and has demanded to give out Russian Gulams (bodyguards of Emir) for the reference in an Islam or to execute them. Maymun has refused and after national excitements with Russ has left Derbent for which some years with the governor of Shirvan then were at war.

11. The Russ-Byzantium war in 988.

In a traditional history and consciousness Old Russian reporter capture Korsun (Chersonese) is inextricably related with followed then the Christening of Russia. The story about operations was only a frame for the description of the major stage in a life of people – acceptances of orthodox belief. The point of view on which the conflict for Korsun in 988 has led to Vladimir's to marriage on the Byzantium empress Anna and to the subsequent distribution in Russia of Orthodoxy was ratified. Under other version, capture Korsun in 989 has taken place already after Vladimir's christening in 987 as means of pressure for Byzantium with the purpose to force to carry out of her taken obligations.

Falling Korsun is reflected only in Old Russian sources, except for a unique mention of this event by the contemporary, the Byzantium historian by Lion Deacon. After war of the Kiev prince Svytoslav with Byzantium in 970-971 of the attitude between New Rome and Russia remained unfriendly. When Svytoslav was lost in 972 in fight with Pechenegian on Dnepr thresholds, in Russia intestine war between it son for the Kiev throne has inflamed. Prince Vladimir has won 978 and since then made military campaigns on neighbors.

Strengthening of the Old Russian state has forced the Kiev prince to reflect on acceptance of religion which could become state in Russia. The choice has fallen on Orthodoxy. On STY [6] Vladimir by 988 has decided to accept a christening in the Greek city of Korsun in Crimea, and the subsequent capture of city and a christening are described in frameworks agiographic traditions with accompanying miracles.

It is considered, that in Byzantium about 976 of rules young emperor Basil II who from the very beginning of board has collided route of the army Bulgarian and mutiny military leaders. The commander east armies of empire Bardas Skleros first has raised. For struggle against it have directed in 978 of the former rebel Bardas Phakas is popular in armies. However that, won above Bardas Skleros, in 987 has proclaimed himself emperor. In the beginning 988 rebellious armies came to the Byzantium capital Constantinople from which them the passage separated only Bosporus. Simultaneously, according to the Syrian historian of XI century Yahja Antioch, Bulgarian devastated possession of Byzantium in the West.

For these reasons Basil II desperately required the military help when has learned about desire of the Kiev prince Vladimir to accept a christening. Not clearly, why the Roman emperor has turned the look to Russia - on an official history of Byzantium of the most terrible enemy. Yahja Antioch, usually precisely describing chronology of events so has told about the Russ-Byzantium union:

« Was him [Bardas Phakas] tsar Basil owing to force of his armies and his victories over it is anxious. Also his riches were exhausted and his need has induced to send to I reign Russ – and they his enemies, – to ask them to help it with his present position. It also has agreed to it. They between themselves also have concluded the contract about property and Russ tsar married the sister reigning Basil [Anna] after it has put to it a condition that it was christened also all people of his countries, and they people great. Also did not rank itself Russ then as any law and did not recognize any belief. To it Tsar Basil subsequently also has sent metropolitans and bishops, and they have christened tsar and everyone who was embraced with his grounds, and has sent to it the sister, and she has constructed many churches in the country Russ. And when business about a marriage has been solved between them, there arrived armies Russ as well have incorporated to armies of Greeks which were at tsar Basil, and all have gone together on struggle with Bardas by sea Phakas and a land, in Christople. They also have won Phakas … »

Armenian historian Stefan from Taron, the contemporary of prince Vladimir informed about the size of Russian military help of Byzantium. It has named figure in 6 thousand soldiers. On Yahja the connected forces Russ and Greeks have crushed armies Bardas Phakas under Christople (on the Asian coast of Bosporus) at the end of 988, and on April 13, 989 allies in battle near Abydos have finished with Bardas Phakas. Yahja Antioch mentions operations Russ in structure of the Byzantium army and the ambassador, in northern Syria in 999.

Thus, the Russ-Byzantium union has been made not later than autumn 988 then the Russian case was at war in structure of the Byzantium army, at least, prior to the beginning of XI century. According to east sources to the union preceded the decision of prince Vladimir to be christened and the consent of emperor Basil II to marry the sister to Vladimir.

Vladimir was christened in 987 as his early Vita [53], made by monk Jacob, is informed, that « after a sacred christening live by the blessed prince Vladimir of years 28 », and also « christening prince Vladimir in the tenth summer on murder brother Yaropolk ». Later source STY [6] connects Vladimir's christening to a christening of all Russia and a campaign on Korsun.

For traditional historians of the reason and date of a campaign of prince Vladimir on the Greek city of Korsun in Crimea remain not clear. STY dates a campaign in the spring – summer 988 that as a whole does not contradict east certificates on the conclusion of the Russ-Byzantium union.

The Byzantium historian Lion Deacon, unique of Greeks having mentioned about capture of Kherson (Korsun) "Tavro-Scythians", has dated this event for a comet observable in July – August of 989. Vita monk Jacob informs:

« For other summer after a christening to thresholds went, for the third summer the city Korsun has taken ».

That is the capture of city has taken place in 989.

In that case causes question participation of large Russian connection in structure of the Byzantium army when Vladimir besieges the Greek city. Historians put forward the various versions explaining a campaign of Vladimir on Korsun. Under the most widespread version Byzantium, having received six-thousandth Russian group, did not hurry up to execute the humiliating contract from its point of view: to give in marriage to "barbarian", christening without participation of the Byzantium church, the native sister of emperor. Capture Korsun and threat to go to Tsargrad became the means, forced Basil II to execution of obligations to become related with Tavro-Scythians.

On different medieval sources attack Korsun has borrowed from 6 [54] till 9 months that supposes an opportunity started attack in the autumn 988 (already after sending military group to the aid of Basil II), and falling Korsun – in the summer 989. Historians assume, that Vladimir's armies have landed about Korsun in Strelec to a bay [55,56].

STY [6] so describes attack and capture Korsun:

« In 6496 (988) there was Vladimir with an army on Korsun, city Greek, and were shut Korsunian in city. Also there was Vladimir on that party of city at quay, in distance of flight arrow from city, and battled strong from city.

Vladimir has besieged city. People in city began to be exhausted, and Vladimir to the townspeople has told: „ If will not surrender, to idle time and three years “. They have not obeyed it, Vladimir, having made the army, has ordered close an embankment to city walls. It is when they filled, Korsunian, having undermined a wall city, stilling closed the ground, and carried her to itself in city, and poured in the middle of city. Soldiers closed it is even more, and Vladimir stood.

And here a certain husband Korsunian, name Anastas, has let arrow, having written on it: „ Dig over and close water, there is she on pipes from holes, which for you from the east “. Vladimir, having heard about it, has looked at the sky and has told: „ If it will come true, - itself I am christened! “. Also has immediately enjoined to dig across to pipes and has adopted water. People were exhausted from thirst and have surrendered »

Attack of prince Vladimir on Korsun.

The traditional history asserts, that after capture of city Vladimir has demanded from the Byzantium emperor his sister, promise in exchange to be christened; has waited there Anna with church retinue then it was christened, has concluded a marriage and has returned Korsun to Byzantium. On returning to Kiev Vladimir has started a christening of people with the help of the Greek priests. Reporter notices that prince has taken out from Korsun not only power sacred and icons, but also other trophies, including any utensils and copper statues.

Historian V.V. Mavrodin [55] has assumed, that Korsunian the legend about Vladimir's christening has been brought in the initial annals by [6 one of Korsunian priests as reporter well knew topography of Chersonese and inserted the Greek words into the Russian text. Legendary character to capture Korsun it give agiographic stamps that is traditional connection of real events with the description of the miracles occuring during these events (Vladimir's sudden blindness and enlightenment after a christening).

We believe that STY and a traditional history intentionally deform facts Korsunian of a campaign and a christening of Russia. The most correct statement of events is made in « Vita Vladimir of special structure » [57].

According to the chronicle in the beginning Vladimir asked for itself the daughter of prince Korsun of hailstones, but that with contempt has given up to the pagan. Then the offended Vladimir has collected an army from « Vikings, Slovenian, Krivichian, Bulgarian with black people » and has moved to punish the offender. During time attack certain Viking from Korsun by name Jdbern (or Ijbern) has sent arrow to camp to the fellow tribesmen Vikings and has shouted: « Inform arrow that to prince Vladimir! » To arrow the note with the message has been adhered: « If with power you will stand under city year, either two, or three, you will not take Korsun. Seamen come by earthen with drink and with forage during hailstones »

On the basis of these data Vladimir ordered to dig over an earthen way and in 3 months has taken city. Punishment of city dwellers [57] further has followed:

« And prince Korsunian and with Princess has caught, and daughter them to itself has taken in a tent, and prince and princess has adhered at tent a plough and with daughter them before them lawlessness has created. And after three days has enjoined prince and princess to kill, and daughter them for boyar Izhberna has given with many manor, and in Korsun the deputy of it has put … »

Probably, in this episode author Vita wanted to emphasize barbarity of Russian prince which has brightened up spirit only after a christening, however in this case Vladimir has copied an image of the previous actions in relation to Polotsk prince Rogvolod and his daughter Rogned. Having grasped Korsun, Vladimir has sent to Tsargrad embassy led by military leader Oleg and Viking Jdbern. These characters are not known on other sources.

Thus, Vita special structure, despite of contradictions with other sources, transfers a history of falling Korsun is more realistic and with the big details, than STY. However historians are guarded not with the clear version with « earthen way » on which in city crews of the ships delivered water and the foodstuffs. In our opinion « the earthen way » is a usual underground course (tunnel) which was close Vladimir's soldiers. Version STY with the dug over water pipe is obvious, though dependence large is not quite clear, it is good safety to a fortress from an external water pipe which arrangement could not be kept secret long from the enemy. Nevertheless, historians do not exclude, that both histories of capture Korsun have under themselves a real basis.

We believe that prince Vladimir married empress Anna Macedonian in 960 when the first record about it contains in Russian annals. In the Byzantium sources prince Vladimir is mentioned in the peace treaty in 944 as prince Pereyaslavl of princedom. Therefore the christening of prince Vladimir in 987 and a christening of Russia in 988 is not connected in any way to events in Korsun.

Bulgarian sources in own way tell about events 988 [20], volume I, page 103-104. In the beginning of 980th there was war of prince Vladimir with Bulgarian:

« Bylimer [Vladimir] asked Timar to give out to it captured in exchange for trebling “Djir to a tribute” and opening of a duty-free Amber way in Artan. To not unite again the opponents, Timar has agreed to accept conditions Kukcha and has given out Bylimer his captured in exchange for his promises. Besides Timar has taken at Bylimer the written obligation to not accept Christianities and to not interfere with distribution of true belief in Russia. More strong to adhere Bylimer to Power (Ak Yort), Timar has given out for him and daughter Bozok. After wedding which has taken place here, in Bolgar, Bylimer has sailed to Russia on the Kara – Idel, and the next year seven Bulgarian jurists have gone in Bashtu on Horysdan ways. Their son Nasyr Kul-Mohammed headed. They have turned into an Islam Barynian and Kaubujian beks [princes], and also biys Saklan Badjanakian and have constructed some mosques in Bashtu [Kiev], Karadjar, Batavyl [Putivl], Hursa and Baryn-Diu... »

Thus prince Vladimir was exposed to military pressure with the purpose to compel it to accept Russ an Islam. Vladimir's intrusion in Korsun in 988 is described:

« But in some years Bylimer completely was exhausted under burden new Djir a tribute and has decided to correct business due to a robbery Roman the grounds. In 988 it has suddenly intruded in Djaldu [Korsun] and has seized local Roman city. Frightened Roman khan has offered then Bylimer – in exchange for Djakdu and acceptance of Christianity by him – many gold and silver and Dima-Tarhan in plus. These conditions were so favorable, that Bylimer has not resisted and has accepted conditions Roman...

When Timar has learned about acceptance Bylimer of Christianity has sent to it ambassadors with reproaches... Bylimer it was justified by that has made it for the sake of Djir a tribute and has perfidiously refused to fulfill the promise given to him earlier... »

We count that the attack on Korsun is connected with Vladimir's desire to marry daughter Korsunian tsar and to solve the material problems. When the world did not possible to execute this whim of Grand Duke it was necessary to punish military force offenders, and the bride to give in marriage to servant Vladimir in punishment for the put insult.

We believe that the main result of war in 988, there was a recognition Vladimir's Byzantines emperor under a name Basil (name at christening).

On the legendary events described STY, quite real episodes of a Christian life of Russia are imposed. In 988 is Bishop Joachim from Korsun christened Novgorod and became the first Novgorod bishop. It is obvious, that Joachim (the author of the known annals) under influence of a christening of Russia and personal friendship with Anna Macedonian became bishop of Novgorod after war in 988. Joachim, in the story 989 [15] are mentioned a christening Novgorodian in the Annals Novgorod the first Younger izvod in clause, and is called there as "Archbishop Akim Korsunianin". In the annals Novgorod (Malinovsky's Novgorod annals) in clause 988 are informed the second, that to Novgorod there has come bishop Joachim, « demanded ruin and Perun destroyed » and remained bishop the Novgorod 42 years while his place was taken up by his pupil Efrem. Thus, death Joachim is dated 1030. Bishop has constructed some temples, including a wooden cathedral in the name of Sofia, Knowledge’s of God « about thirteen tops » and stone church Joachim and Anna where was burial, and also a monastery named Sofia or Desyatina’s. In a context of friendship Joachim and Anna there is clear a name of the same church. In 1698 of power of bishop have been transferred in a stone Sofia cathedral. In an altar of a temple, on a wall, Joachim it is represented by the first among the Novgorod prelates. On destruction pagans in Novgorod details are informed on his activity in attributed to it Joachim to the annals.

In connection with the stated facts becomes clear, that STY [6] incorrectly describes events of the Christening of Russia and capture Korsun. The chronicle creates a legendary religious aura to events which actually was not. As there was no opposition of Russia with Byzantium because of Vladimir's requirement to marry to him the Roman empress Anna, in fact down to 1000 the Russian forwarding case [51] sent by Vladimir to the aid of Byzantium, battled in different edges of extensive empire. About Russ in structure of the Roman army it is known and later, however it already there were only hired groups similar Vikings.

12. A campaign of Russia against Byzantium in 1024.

In the beginning of XI century, someone from relatives of Grand Duke Vladimir has made sea attack on the Byzantium possession in Aegean Sea at the end of reign of emperor Basil II. The campaign is known only according to Byzantium historian John Skilitzes [48]:

« When the sister of emperor, - and before its husband Vladimir Chrisohir, any relative died, bring to itself 800 person and having planted them on court, has come to Constantinople as though wishing to act on military service has died in Russia. But when emperor has demanded, that it has combined the weapon and only in such kind was on appointment it has not wanted it and has left through Propontid [Marmara Sea].

Having arrived in Abydos and having collided with strategy [Fem of Propontid], it easily has overcome it and has gone down to Lemnos. Here [it and his satellites] have been deceived fake by the promises given by the chief of fleet Kivirreot and David from Ohrid, strategy Samos, Nikephoros Kavasil, duke of Solun, and everyone were murder »

Probable translation of nickname of the military leader Russ Chrisohir is «Gold hand» [58].

This Russ-Byzantium military incident has taken place approximately in 1024 time of attack is estimated proceeding from a binding to the following facts: the end of board of the Byzantium emperor Basil II and after death of great Kiev prince Vladimir Svytoslavich though the message on death of his wife Anna after Vladimir's death contradicts Old Russian annals. The conflict is not reflected by Russian annals, probably, in a kind of the small importance.

13. The Caspian campaign in 1030-1032.

In chronicles [59] it is spoken, that in 1030 inhabitants of Derbent have attacked the next Shirvan after border conflict because of disputable territories. In the same time is for 38 courts to Shirvan have attacked Russ which the governor of Shirvan Minuchihr ben Jasid has met near Baku. In battle of an army Shirvan-Shah have been crushed, Russ have moved to the river Kura, then across Araks where Minuchihr has once again tried to block him a way, but has been again crushed on the river. Appeared, that the governor of Gandzha Musa ben Fald has employed Russ for intestine struggle against the brother which supporters have grasped Baylakan. With the help Vikings Musa has seized Baylakan and has killed the brother, and Russ, according to the chronicle, have left in Rome (Byzantium) and then in the country [60].

The same events of 1032 The History of Shirvan and Derbent are described in different places of the chronicle differently. Regarding, concerning history of governors of Shirvan, it is informed, that in 1032 Alanian and Saririan (modern Avarian), hills people of Dagestan, have attacked Shirvan and completely it have plundered, having killed more than 10 thousand person. After returning in the places of them almost have completely destroyed on border of the grounds of Derbent. In 1033 Alanian the army tried to revenge inhabitants of Derbent, but has been broken.

Regarding, concerning history of governors of Derbent, it is spoken about an attack in 1032 to Shirvan Russ and Alanian. Emir of Derbent is Mansur ben Maymun (the son of that Maymun which Russ rescued in 987) suited an ambush in gorge and has interrupted all Russ, and also has taken away their extraction. Then Russ and Alanian in 1033 have attacked possession of Derbent, but have been broken. Comparison of two descriptions allows recognize the second version with participation Russ improbable. Certificates on overland attacks Russ on east Caucasus are not known. Also they on events 987 and 1030 were allies of governors of Derbent in their struggle against Shirvan.

Presence Vikings in Transcaucasia is mentioned Old Armenian by historians. Vikings the army accepted active participation in struggle against the sultan Seldjuk Tuhril Bek in 1054 about what tells Aristakes Lastivertci, naming Russian "Prank", that as it is established by modern historians, means "Vikings" [61]. If Russian on Caucasus were from Vikings their way to Russia through Byzantium finds an explanation. In that case the help Russ to separate governors on Caucasus can be or the private initiative of hired Russian teams, or display of a policy of Byzantium on Caucasus.

On ours the opinion, returning Vikings-Russ home through Byzantium should not be amazing. In fact the city of Prusa, capital Bithynia on Marmara Sea still was a patrimonial residence of Russia in the Mediterranean region.

14. The Russ-Byzantium war in 1043.

The traditional history with surprising persistence names last war of Russia with Byzantium unsuccessful sea campaign in 1043 of Russian armies under supervision of the son of prince Jaroslav – Vladimir Jaroslavich, to Constantinople.

On "truthful" Byzantium sources Russian fleet has been crushed, up to 6 thousand soldiers have been destroyed or were taken prisoner. Despite of total defeat, Byzantium in 1046 has concluded the world with Russia, fastened by a marriage of prince Vsevolod Jaroslavich, the son of the Kiev grand duke, on the relative of the Byzantium emperor Constantine Monomakh. Some sources count the bride the daughter of the Monomakh.

After marriage of prince Vladimir on Anna Macedonian, captures of Chersonese in 989 and Christenings of Russia, Ancient Russia became the ally of Byzantium. On service of emperors constantly there was a Russian case, the most numerous among other military contingents from foreigners. Russian has based in 1016 a monastery on Athos. In the same year Byzantines together with brother of Vladimir Sfeng suppress revolt strategy Chersonese George Tsula in Crimea [48].

The traditional history cannot explain occurrence intensity in attitudes between two states which starts to be shown after accession in June 1042 emperors Constantine Monomakh. The beginning of board of Constantine is marked mutiny armies under supervision of George Maniac in Italy, it is known, that under his supervision battled and Russ-Vikings groups. Under the version of academician G.G. Litavrin [58] emperor Constantine has dismissed the military groups using a special arrangement of former emperor Michael V, and, probably, tried to disband Russian Vikings the case. Display of it became desire of known Viking Herald Sever, the representative of the Norwegian ruling dynasty to return home. However Constantine not only refuses, but according to sagas stops Herald in prison. That manages to run home through Russia where Jaroslav Mudry reigned friendly to it.

Probably ruin of quay and warehouses of Russian monastery is connected to the same events on Athos [62].

Virgin Maria Vladimirovna, has settled the conflict of Russia and Byzantium in 1043. A mosaic of the Temple of Sacred Sofia, XI century.

Occasion to war, under message Skylitzes [48], became murder in the market of Tsargrad of a notable Russian merchant (« the notable Scythian »). Emperor Constantine has sent ambassadors with apologies, but they have not accepted. Michael Psell [63] asserts, that Russ prepared for war with Byzantium at former emperors, but have decided to go to a campaign at Michael's V accession because of immemorial « rage and hatred to power Roman ». However Michael corrected only 4 months, it was replaced by Constantine:

« And barbarians though could not reproach with anything new tsar, have gone on him war for no reason at all that only preparations of them did not appear vain »

Jaroslav I Wise has sent to a campaign on ships (ladies) an army under supervision of the senior son Vladimir reigning in Novgorod. Colonels it has put Vyshata and Ivan Tvorimirich.

Bulgarian sources [20] name Vladimir's name as Hin Kubar.

Skylitzes estimates Russian army in 100 thousand soldiers, however other Byzantium historian of XI century, Michael Attaliat, [64.] Constantine has specified number of Russian fleet in 400 ships has learned about a forthcoming campaign in the spring of 1043 and has arranged: has sent from Constantinople Russian mercenaries and merchants, and strategy of Fem Paristrian (it is northern Bulgaria) Kataklon Kekavmen has charged to protect the western coast of the Black sea. In June 1043 the fleet of prince Vladimir has passed Bosporus and there was in one of bays Propontid (Marmara Sea), near to Constantinople. Under certificate Psell is Russian have entered negotiations, having requested on 1000 coins on the ship. Emperor Constantine Monomakh the first began negotiations from words Skylitzes, which in anything have not resulted, as Russian have requested on 3 liters (almost 1 kg) gold on the soldier. Emperor has collected in one harbor all military ships which have stayed after a fire of 1040, and cargo court, having planted on them soldiers and having armed stones throwing and « Greek fire ». Russian fleet was built in a line opposite to Greek, but the most part of day of the party stayed idle. Emperor observed of a course of actions from a high hill from coast. On his command fight began Basil Theodore with 3 triremes (with 2 triremes, from words Psell, battle personally observing a course [63]). In the answer Russian ships (ladies) have surrounded the big ships of Byzantines. Vikings tried to make a hole in cases trireme spears, and Greeks drop in them spears and stones. When Byzantines have applied « Greek fire », Russian began to seek safety in flight. By words Skylitzes [48] Basil Theodore has burnt out seven Russian courts and three has sunk together with a command. From harbor the basic fleet of Byzantines has acted. Ladies (ships) have receded, not accepting fight. During this moment the storm which consequences were described by Michael Psell [63] has burst:

« One ships get up have covered waves at once, others long still dragged on sea and have then stopped on rocks and on abrupt coast; behind some of them were started up in I shall drive ours triremes, they have started up one boats under water together with a command, and other soldiers with trireme have made a hole and half flooded have delivered to the nearest coast. Also have arranged then to barbarians true have bled, appear, as if the stream of blood given vent from the rivers has painted the sea »

With a storm begins the story about unsuccessful campaign STY [6], holding back about the occurring sea battle. East wind has thrown out on coast up to 6 thousand soldiers the princely ship was wrecked also. Therefore prince Vladimir was accepted to itself colonel by Ivan Tvorimirich, they with a team have decided to make the way home in the sea way. Colonel Vyshata on the contrary, has put ashore to soldiers with words [6]:

« If I shall be alive, with them, if died, with a team »

Emperor has sent in I shall drive for Russian 24 triremes [48]. In one of bays Vladimir attacked persecutors and has broken them, it is possible during coastal parking then has safely returned to Kiev. Other part Russ, coming back to Russia on foot along coast of the Black sea, has been intercepted about Varna by armies of strategist Katakalon Kekavmen. Colonel Vyshata together with 800 soldiers was taken prisoner. Almost all captives have been blinded by Byzantines. Russian Vladimir's campaign to Tsargrad has come to the end with full humiliation however it is spoken with the Byzantium sources. Then it becomes not clear, what for winners – Romans, have concluded the world with Russia later.

The peace treaty has been made in three years, agrees STY [6], in 1046. Colonel Vyshata has been released and has returned to Kiev, damage to a monastery in Athos it is compensated. Jacob interest of Byzantium in the world has been caused by new threat to its northern borders. In fact from the end of 1045 Pechenegian began to make attacks on the Bulgarian possession of empire.

After strange defeat Russia again became the ally of Byzantium, in fact in 1047 Russian groups battled in structure of its army against the rebel of Lion Tornik. Moreover, soon the union has been fastened by a marriage of prince Vsevolod Jaroslavich with the Byzantium tsarina whom Russian annals name the daughter (relative) of emperor Constantine Monomakh. The dynastic marriage has considerably raised prestige of Ancient Russia. Speak, that after that any more Grand Duke Jaroslav unsuccessfully tried to marry off the daughters to the European monarchs, and it accepted marriage embassies.

Some scientists assume that on it war has not ended. The known historian of Old Russian art of V.G. Bryusova has assumed, that there was a continuation of campaign in 1044 during which Russian the Greek Chersonese (Korsun) and what exactly it and has forced empire to go on concessions [65] has been taken. For the benefit of Bryusov's hypothesis results the following arguments:

1. According to bishop of Shalon to the Physiognomy who has visited Kiev in 1049, prince Jaroslav has told to it that it has personally transferred power over. Clement and Fives are from Chersonese in the capital. Power could be taken only as a military trophy.

2. The given certificate contradicts message STY [6] about capture of these body in Chersonese prince Vladimir Baptist in 988. A presence body Clement in Kiev has confirmed reporter Titmar from Merzeburg, died in 1018.

3. In Kiev at Jaroslav there is a set of subjects of monuments of art of Black Sea Coast. In Novgorod a plenty « Korsunian antiquities » up to now was kept: gate, decorating an input in Christmas limit the Sofia cathedral and ornamented motive a cross (it is characteristic for Hersones arts), icons Korsunian of the mother of god, Peter and Paul, the sample for an icon "Rescues – Manuel". All of them of the Byzantium origin also concern in XI century. In XVI-XVII centuries in Novgorod there was a legend, that Korsun antiquities are brought Novgorodian as trophies from Chersonese. The Sofia cathedral has been incorporated in 1045 that contacts a victory over 1044, and also for accommodation of the extracted church values.

4. So-called, « Korsunian Gates » are made in Magdeburg in 1153 and intended for Uspenija Prisnodevy Maria's cathedral in Plock [66]. However, V.V. Mavrodin considers, that a gate have been taken Novgorodian in a campaign of 1187 on Swedish Sigtun [67]. Scientist Poppe has assumed that « Legends about Korsunian antiquities » should strengthen a position of the Novgorod lords in Russian church hierarchy.

5. In the Sofia annals, Novgorod IV and close to them the story about a campaign of 1043 begins words "paki" ("again") or there are two identical records about it. Bryusov supposes that "again" concerned to a repeated campaign of 1044, the mention about which has been removed by the copyist.

6. In opinion Bryusova [65] it was impossible to conclude in 1046 the peace treaty with Byzantium, and then a dynastic marriage with daughter Constantine Monomakh without a resolute military victory. Absence of any mentions in sources about Bryusova's 2-nd campaign explains the conflict of princely interests, as if others princes have not been interested in a mention of a victory of Vladimir Jaroslavich above Greeks.

7. Also Bryusova [65] mixing in consciousness reporters assumes persons Vladimir Jaroslavich with more known princes over. It is Vladimir who has made a campaign in 989 on Korsun, and Vladimir Monomakh.

Let's familiarize with a sight Bulgarian chronicles on events of the beginning of XI century in Russia. The source [20], volume I, informs page 107:

« After death Bylimer [Vladimir] in Russia war for domination between it son began. Myshdauly [Svyatopolk], sitting in Dima-Tarhan [Lubesh] and was supported Rome, has won. Under his order defeated Ar-Aslap [Jaroslav] should destroy perfidiously one of sons Bylimer from Bozok – Halib, and servants itself Myshdauly have killed other son Bozok – Barys [Boris], as the main applicants for a fatherly throne... Myshdauly has ceased to pay a tribute for Djir that has compelled Ibrahim to direct the governor of Mardan Gilas to Caen. Gilas has straight off taken Caen and has ratified here one of Haddad – Kurdan, friendly to Power. Ar-Aslap, contrary to orders Myshdauly, has not moved to it to the aid, for what Ibrahim has helped it to cope with the strongest famine in Balyn. Moreover: encouraging Ar-Aslap on overthrow Myshdauly, Ibrahim has sent it khan cap – copy of the. Only such three caps have made the house of master Atrak bin Musa. Other cap Ibrahim shortly before the death has sent together with a copy of "Notes" Bakir, ornaments and considerable money for construction of mosques to the sultan of Khurasan Mahmud »

The Cap of the Monomakh made jeweller by the House of master Atrak bin Musa. In total there were 3 Caps.

Bulgarian the chronicle asserts that Jaroslav Mudry participated in bloody struggle for a throne of Russia. Bulgarian tsar Ibrahim has made three imperial Caps – the crowns, decorated jewelry. One of Caps it has presented prince Jaroslav. We know, that prince Vsevolod has received from Constantine Monomakh is Cap of Monomakh which is stored in the Armory Museum of the Moscow Kremlin. Hence, Jaroslav Mudryj was the first owner of the Cap of the Monomakh, therefore we can safely identify Jaroslav on this fact with Constantine Monomakhom.

No mentions of Jaroslav Mudrogo's attack to New Rome are present. There is only information on destruction of son Jaroslav by name Vladimir whom Bulgarian called Hin Kubar. We shall result the citation [20], volume I, page 110:

« Hin-Kubar with people has landed from 400 ships at Bolgar and began to destroy it attack. Caen has sent it towards from Bulyar Bahadirian Mardan, Kyrgyz Cuman and the fleet headed Kaf-Urus and son Tuki Kadylom. Before the fleet was at the Kashan besieged indignant khan by decrees and actions Subashian, but Baluk has decided, that the city of Ibragim is more important... We horse army has fallen upon the enemy simultaneously with fleet. Galijian have perfidiously left Sadumian and have sailed downwards on Idel, and we have crushed and have shot host Hin-Kubar. Mardan wanted to spare Sadumian the leader for his bravery, but it Kermenian had time to suspend covered with wounds in fight Hin-Kubar on a tree »

Death Hin-Kubar on Bulgarian to chronicles is dated not later than 1050.

We have accurately stated facts of common knowledge of a history of Russian campaign to Tsargrad in 1043. Now we shall sound the reconstruction of events of thousand-year prescription.

In 1042 there was a situation unacceptable for Russia in Tsargrad. Emperor Michael IV Paphlagonian, after suppression of revolt in the Volga Bulgaria, has returned to Tsargrad, has accepted has cut and has died because of illness on December 10, 1041. After his death to authority there has unexpectedly come Michael V Kalaphates who has held on throne only half-year.

We believe what exactly the campaign of Russian armies to Tsargrad, sent by prince Jaroslav Mudry, has led to Michael's V Kalaphates to overthrow which did not belong to a dynasty of Russia – Flavius. Military expedition was headed by son Jaroslav – Vladimir. The purpose of military operation of Russian armies was Enthronization Jaroslav Mudry on a throne of New Rome. By this time in Byzantium did not remain direct man's successors of the Macedonian dynasty. Only Jaroslav Mudry was the senior lineal descendant cousin to Macedonians of dynasty Rurikovich. However it already was in old age, but possessed the big authority and material resources.

Russ-Vikings naval forces arrived to Constantinople, have easy passed Bosporus and have stopped on spot-check in Marmara Sea. Nobody could forbid Russ to go through Bosporus to Marmara Sea, in fact base of Russia in Propontid the city of Prusa was.

Russian armies have demanded Michael's V Kalaphates discharge from authority. Legends say that Virgin Maria Vladimirovna who has appeared in Vlaherna a temple of Constantinople and laid the cover above capital of empire has taken part in the conflict. Since then in Russia there is a holiday of the Cover. On our reconstruction of a history Virgin Maria was senior sister Jaroslav Mudry, daughter of Sacred Vladimir and empresses Anna Macedonian. The virgin has settled the conflict in Tsargrad. In result Jaroslav Mudryj has been proclaimed by emperor Constantine Monomakh. For strengthening the authority it married elderly empress Zoe, the daughter of emperor Constantine VIII. Jaroslav Mudry's authority in New Rome has held on to his death in 1054 or 1055. Children at pair Jaroslav – Zoe could not be, therefore Russian party of Tsargrad has decided to arrange wedding between prince Vsevolod and the daughter or relative Constantine Monomakh. Different sources name a name of the bride as Anna, Irena or Elena. We believe that wife Vsevolod was from the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. In 1046 the peace treaty with Russia on which wedding Vsevolod and the Byzantium tsarina has taken place has been made. At them the unique son – Vladimir who has received a nickname the Monomakh was born. By Paterik Pechersky laurels Vladimir was the sick child. Vsevolod both Vladimir have visited Kiev and church Uspenija of the Virgin. There Vladimir has dressed a wreath and Jesus Christ's belt and has there and then recovered. Vladimir Monomakh has based own dynasty Monomakhich.

In Prisyolkov M.D.'s [68] opinion, in Russian annals at the end of the life Jaroslav Mudry referred to as emperor. Metropolitan Hillarion named it Hagan, and on frescos of the Sofia cathedral in Kiev, narrating about Jaroslav Mudry's death in 1054, prince is named Cesar. Thus, our assumption of Jaroslav Mudry's identity to emperor Constantine Monomakh has the most serious basis logically explaining all peripetias of struggle of Russian party of Tsargrad for authority in empire.

Constantine Monomakh in the Cap of the Monomakh and empress Zoe on a mosaic Enthronization of Jesus Christ. XI century, the Temple of Sacred Sofia.

Reconstruction of external shape of Jaroslav Mudry.

It is logical to assume, that last war of Russia with Byzantium has come to the end with full success of Russian party. The Macedonian dynasty has held on throne of empire of 13 more years, but could not be fixed for a long time. Vladimir Monomakh any more did not manage to become emperor of New Rome. The dynasty of Russia – Flavius has managed to correct the Byzantium Empire more than 700 years – from 330 till 1055. After XI century contacts of Russia to Byzantium get down that has led to capture of empire by crusaders in 1204 and to falling of New Rome under impacts of Turks – Osmanli Turks in 1453. Change of authority and religion has led to degradation of original Orthodox culture of the Byzantium Empire in XV century.

Let's bring political and economic results two hundred years of continuous wars of Russia with Byzantium. We shall reduce in the Table № 2 all data on military conflicts and their echoes in surrounding regions, and also political results of campaigns of Russia. In the left columns we shall place dates and names of expeditions, and in the right column - political achievements.


Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev

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[27] Лев Диакон, История — Наука, М.: 1988, в серии памятники исторической мысли. Книга 6 в переводе М. М. Копыленко, комментарии М. Я. Сюзюмова, С. А. Иванова, см. комментарии 64 и 66.
[28] Васильев А. А., История Византийской империи: Византийская империя и Русь,
[29] Литаврин Г. Г., Византия, Болгария, Древняя Русь (IX – начало XII в.). — СПб., 2000. С. 64.
[30] Обнорский С. П., Язык договоров русских с греками // Язык и мышление. 1936, VI-VII. С. 102.
[31] Лихачев Д. С., Великое наследие. Классические произведения литературы Древней Руси,
[32] «Древняя Русь в свете зарубежных источников». Под редакцией Е.А.Мельниковой. М. 1999 г.
[33] Гаркави, Из сочинений Аль-Масуди
[34] Житие Василия Нового и Хроника Амартола.
[35] Лиутпранд Кремонский: Воздаяние, книга V (см. главу XV)
[36] Продолжатель Феофана, Царствование Романа, VI.39
[37] Литаврин Г. Г. Малоизвестные свидетельства о походе князя Игоря в 941 году // Восточная Европа в исторической ретроспективе. М., 1999, стр. 38-44.
[38] Половой Н. Я. К вопросу о первом походе Игоря против Византии (сравнительный анализ русских и византийских источников) // Византийский временник, т. XVIII, 1961 г., стр. 85-104.
[39] Половой Н. Я. К вопросу о первом походе Игоря против Византии (сравнительный анализ русских и византийских источников) // Византийский временник, том XVIII, 1961 г., стр. 85-104.
[40] Половой Н. Я. Две ошибки древнейшего русского хрониста
[41] Кембриджский документ: Перевод П. К. Коковцова.
[42] Мовсес Каланкатуаци, История страны Алуанк, кн. 3, гл. 22,
[43] Фрагмент Ибн Мискавейха о походе русов на Бердаа.
[44] Фрагмент из поэмы «Искандер-наме» в переводе М. Тебенькова. По книге Е. С. Галкиной «Тайны Русского Каганата», и рассказ Ибн Мискавейха о походе русов на Бердаа:
[45] Сахаров А. Н. Дипломатия Святослава. — М.: Международные отношения, 1982.
[46] Вернадский Г. В. Киевская Русь
[47] Новосельцев А. П., Хазарское государство и его роль в истории Восточной Европы и Кавказа, М., «Наука», 1990.
[48] Иоанн Скилица, «Обозрение историй»
[49] Константин Манассия, Летопись.
[50] Лев Диакон, История, 4.6, 6.10, 6.13, 8.9.
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[51] «Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского», пер. Н. Эмина, Москва, 1864 г., стр. 128.
[52] В.Н. Татищев, «История Российская», ч. 2, гл.: Великий князь Святослав
[53] Другое название «Память и похвала князю русскому Владимиру»:
[54] Обычное житие Владимира Святославича, древнейший список — Мусин-Пушкинский 1414 г.
[55] Мавродин В. В. Образование русского национального государства. Изд. 2-е, Госполитиздат. 1941.
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[57] «Житие Владимира особого состава» из Плигинского сборника является источником XVII века. Корсуньская история из него частично содержится в Проложном житие XV века. Выдержки из него опубликованы в книге: Карпов А. Ю. «Владимир Святой» из серии ЖЗЛ. — М.: Молодая гвардия, 2005.
[58] Литаврин Г.Г. Русско-Византийские отношения в XI—XII вв.
[59] «История Ширвана и Дербента», арабская хроника XI века «Тарих Баб ал-абваб».
[60] М. Брайчевский, Утверждение христианства на Руси, гл. IV.
[61] Атаджанян И.А. «Из истории русско-армянских взаимоотношений с X по XVIII века». Ер., «Лингва», 2006.
[62] Акты Русского монастыря на Афоне, №3
[63] Михаил Пселл. «Хронография. Зоя и Феодора. Константин IX.», ХСI.
[64] «Древняя Русь в свете зарубежных источников», ч.2, 4.4: пособие для студентов вузов
[65] Брюсова В. Г. Русско-византийские отношения середины XI века. // Вопросы истории, 1973, № 3, стр. 62.
[66] Поппе А. В. К истории романских дверей Софии Новгородской // Средневековая Русь. — М., 1976. — С. 191—200.
[67] В.В. Мавродин. Образование русского национального государства. Издание 2-e. - ОГИЗ, Госполитиздат. 1941. C. 119.
[68] Присёлков М. Д. История русского летописания XI—XV вв. — СПб., 1996.

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